Describes the procedures for collection of samples, sample preparation, and analysis of CWC-related chemicals. It deals with analytical procedures that can be followed in well-equipped off-site laboratories (designated laboratories), as well as the on-site analytical procedures that the OPCW inspectors use in sample collection and preliminary analysis of the samples in field conditions. A one-of-a-kind, highly topical handbook for every expert in the chemical weapons field Outlines the methods for analysing chemical weapons both on and off site Authored by international experts in the field from top laboratories in both government and academic institutions
The Chemical Weapons Convention entered into force on 29 April 1997, & the major player, namely the United States, ratified it shortly before that date. This constitutes an important achievement in disarmament law & also a step forward in general international law, as the Convention, in order to solve a serious security problem, establishes an unprecedented regime for controlling relevant state & private behaviour, administered by a newly-created international organization. The system being both new & complex, there is a considerable need for interpretation & explanation. In order to make the Chemical Weapons Convention really work, additional measures of implementation are needed. These two problems are addressed by the various contributions presented in this book, which is the result of a common research project of three teams directed by the three editors. It reviews the history of the negotiations & then presents a thorough analysis of the major theatres of the Convention: the organization (OPCW), the verification regime, dispute settlement & reactions to non-compliance. More specific issues include confidentiality, application during armed conflicts, trade issues & national implementation. The information contained in the volume, including the report on the work of the Preparatory Commission, is up-to-date at the time of entry into force.
In negotiations on the Chemical Weapons Convention delegates have addressed the question of how to verify compliance with those provisions which relate to the production and non-production of relevant chemicals. In order to facilitate the work of the negotiators, the Pugwash movement andSIPRI gave a group of fourteen scientific and other experts on the negotiations the task of analysing how the current Convention provisions would be applied to a specific chemical, thiodiglycol. This chemical can be used as a precursor to the chemical warfare agent, mustard gas. In eleven chaptersand an annexe, the authors present their individual findings, illustrated with tables and figures. The steering committee of the project have provided summaries in introductory and concluding chapters. The particular problems of monitoring thiodiglycol production outlined may serve as a model formonitoring other chemicals which will be covered by the future Chemical Weapons Convention.
The first edition of this book, Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels, was published just prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The second edition titled, Chemical Warfare Agents: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, included new epidemiological and clinical studies of exposed or potentially exposed populations; new treatment concepts and products; improved organization of the national response apparatus addressing the potential for CWA terrorism; and improved diagnostic tests that enable rapid diagnosis and treatment. Since the second edition, the chemical warfare agent community has worked hard to advance research for protection and treatment and develop/improve response approaches for individuals and definitive care. Consequently, in addition to updating previous chapters, Chemical Warfare Agents: Biomedical and Psychological Effects, Medical Countermeasures, and Emergency Response, Third Edition features several new chapters that address the Syrian War, chemical destruction, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, biomarkers for chemical warfare agent exposure, field sensors, aircraft decontamination, lung/human on a chip, chemical warfare response decision making, and other research advancements. Features: Describes the newest medical interventions, and the latest technologies deployed in the field, as well as developments in the international response to CW usage highlighting recent events in the Middle East Discusses the latest in organizational/interagency partitioning in terms of responsibilities for emergency response, not just in the United States but at the international level—whether prevention, mitigation, medical care, reclamation, or medico-legal aspects of such response Contains the most current research from bench-level experts The third edition contains the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the question of chemical warfare agent employment on the battlefield or in terrorism. Edited by workers that have been in the field for 35+ years, it remains faithful to the scientific "constants," while evaluating and crediting the advances by the industry that have made us safer.
The Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (PMACWA) of the Department of Defense (DOD) requested the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the engineering design studies (EDSs) developed by Parsons/Honeywell and General Atomics for a chemical demilitarization facility to completely dispose of the assembled chemical weapons at the Pueblo Chemical Depot in Pueblo, Colorado. To accomplish the task, the NRC formed the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons: Phase II (ACW II Committee). This report presents the results of the committee's scientific and technical assessment, which will assist the Office of the Secretary of Defense in selecting the technology package for destroying the chemical munitions at Pueblo. The committee evaluated the engineering design packages proposed by the technology providers and the associated experimental studies that were performed to validate unproven unit operations. A significant part of the testing program involved expanding the technology base for the hydrolysis of energetic materials associated with assembled weapons. This process was a concern expressed by the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons (ACW I Committee) in its original report in 1999 (NRC, 1999). The present study took place as the experimental studies were in progress. In some cases, tests for some of the supporting unit operations were not completed in time for the committee to incorporate results into its evaluation. In those cases, the committee identified and discussed potential problem areas in these operations. Based on its expertise and its aggressive data-gathering activities, the committee was able to conduct a comprehensive review of the test data that had been completed for the overall system design. This report summarizes the study.
Best Synthetic Methods: Organophosphorus (V) Chemistry provides systematic coverage of the most common classes of pentavalent organophosphorus compounds and reagents (including phosphonyl, phosphoryl, and organophosphates), and allows researchers an easy point of entry into this complex and economically important field. The book follows the Best Synthetic Methods format, containing practical methods, synthetic tips, and shortcuts. Where relevant, articles include toxicity data and historical context for the reactions. Typical analytical and spectroscopic data are also presented to enable scientists to identify key compound characteristics. The book is a valuable companion to research chemists in both academia and industry, summarizing the best practical methods (often originating in difficult-to-access, foreign-language primary literature) in one place. It is ideally suited for those working on industrial applications of these compounds, including insecticides, herbicides, flame retardants, and plasticizers. Includes a mixture of tried and tested, historical methods that are proven to work, alongside new methods to provide scientists with a quick, time-saving resource of reliable methods Includes tips and tricks to get reactions to work; important information often missing from other sources Includes key analytical data for compounds, so scientists have one handy resource to select, perform, and analyze the best reaction
Due to its enormous sensitivity and ease of use, mass spectrometry has grown into the analytical tool of choice in most industries and areas of research. This unique reference provides an extensive library of methods used in mass spectrometry, covering applications of mass spectrometry in fields as diverse as drug discovery, environmental science, forensic science, clinical analysis, polymers, oil composition, doping, cellular research, semiconductor, ceramics, metals and alloys, and homeland security. The book provides the reader with a protocol for the technique described (including sampling methods) and explains why to use a particular method and not others. Essential for MS specialists working in industrial, environmental, and clinical fields.
Human experience with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare has been limited, especially in comparison to conventional forms of warfare. Our experience with nuclear warfare is confined to a period of less than one week during the end of World War II, when the United States successfully used two nuclear weapons against targets in Japan. The course of biological warfare and modern use of biological weapons are difficult to track owing to the difficulty of differentiating deliberate use from natural outbreaks. However, the keen potential of biological weapons in acts of terror was shown in the mass disruption caused in the fall 2001 experience in the U.S. with the release of anthrax through the American postal system. Chemical weapons have been used in a handful of conflicts since their introduction to modern warfare during World War I, most recently during the Iran-Iraq War during the 1980s. Despite this limited experience, NBC warfare continues to exert a certain fascination among states. The Historical Dictionary of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare covers the development and use of NBC weapons as well as efforts to limit or control the use of these weapons through a chronology, a bibliography, an introductory essay, and dictionary entries. Over 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries provide a unique selection of terms related to NBC warfare, ranging from basic descriptions of substances used in NBC warfare to details on incidents and episodes where NBC weapons were used. Entries are structured around historical events, persons important to NBC warfare, countries where such weapons have been developed or used, and international treaties and treaty-related organizations.
With the growing concern over the environment, new industries and research areas have been developed to identify, monitor, regulate, and legislate environmental interactions as well as to determine and repair existing environmental damage. For both the expert and the newcomer, a quick, convenient, and comprehensive source is needed to answer questions on the rapidly increasing amount of environmental information. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation (EEAR) responds to this need by providing the reader with an in-depth examination of the environmental analysis and remediation fields in a single eight-volume reference source.
This volume summarises the materials presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Sea-Dumped Chemical Munitions, held in Kaliningrad (Moscow Region), Russia, in January 1995. The conference was sponsored by the NATO Division of Scientific and Environmental Affairs in the framework of its outreach programme to develop co-operation between NATO member countries and the Cooperation Partner countries in the area of disarmament technologies. The problem of the ecological threat posed by chemical weapons (CW) dumped in the seas after the Second World War deserves considerable international attention: the amount of these weapons, many of them having been captured from the German Army, is assessed at more than three times as much as the total chemical arsenals reported by the United States and Russia. They were disposed of in the shallow depths of North European seas - areas of active fishing - in close proximity to densely populated coastlines, with no consideration of the long-term consequences. The highly toxic material have time and again showed up, for instance when retrieved occasionally in the fishing nets, attracting local media coverage only. Nevertheless, this issue has not yet been given adequate and comprehensive scientific analysis, the sea-disposed munitions are not covered by either the Chemical Weapons Convention or other arms control treaties. In fact, the problem has been neglected for a long time on the international level. Only recently were official data made available by the countries which admitted conducting dumping operations.
This anthology presents the complete text of thirty-four treaties that have effectively contained the spread of nuclear, biological, and conventional weapons during the Cold War and beyond. The treaties are placed in historical context by individual commentaries from noted authorities Thomas Graham Jr. and Damien J. LaVera, which provide unique insights on each treaty�s negotiation and implementation. During the 1990s, numerous arms control agreements were concluded under U.N. or U.S. leadership. In 1995, one hundred sixty-five nations agreed to indefinitely extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Many nations ratified important chemical and biological weapons conventions, a pact to reduce conventional forces in Europe, and agreements to limit testing of weapons of mass destruction. More recent treaties seeking to restrain small arms trafficking and ban land mines are also highlighted and analyzed. Graham concludes with lessons learned from the collective negotiation and verification history of these treaties, ongoing efforts to limit weaponry, and general observations on the status and effectiveness of these agreements. There is no comparable resource available for diplomats, international lawyers, and arms control specialists.