“Having been born a freeman, and for more than thirty years enjoyed the blessings of liberty in a free State—and having at the end of that time been kidnapped and sold into Slavery, where I remained, until happily rescued in the month of January, 1853, after a bondage of twelve years—it has been suggested that an account of my life and fortunes would not be uninteresting to the public. Since my return to liberty, I have not failed to perceive the increasing interest throughout the Northern States, in regard to the subject of Slavery. Works of fiction, professing to portray its features in their more pleasing as well as more repugnant aspects, have been circulated to an extent unprecedented, and, as I understand, have created a fruitful topic of comment and discussion.” “Twelve Years a Slave” is a memoir and slave narrative by American Solomon Northup. It was first published in 1853. In “Twelve Years a Slave” Solomon Northup describes how he was kidnapped and sold into slavery in the Deep South.
Release on 2004 | by Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions. International Conference
Papers Presented to the Second International Conference of the Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions (Lisor) Held at Leiden, 27-28 April, 2000
Author: Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions. International Conference
Pubpsher: Uitgeverij Van Gorcum
Studies in Theology and Religion,11 Polemics, as "the art or practice of disputation or controversy", is a living issue in matters of religion, and is a major object of research for scholars in religious studies and theology. The second international conference of the Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions (LISOR), held at Leiden in April 2000, was devoted to the subject of Religious Polemics in Context, aiming at a further exploration of the notion of religious polemics, together with the unfolding of a wide variety of case-studies from various religious traditions. The volume contains most of the papers read at the conference, and offers contributions on general issues (e.g., by M. Dascal), as well as on particular topics in the fields of history of religion (e.g., Islam), ancient Israel and early Christianity, the history of Christianity, and the social sciences of religion. An annotated bibliography is added to this collection, which may stimulate a further study of the topic.
Account of the Christianity from the Apostles to the Reformation
Author: Philip Schaff
"History of the Christian Church" is an eight volume account of Christian history which covers the history of Christianity from the time of the apostles to the Reformation period. The book deals with seven periods in the history of the church: The First Period of Church History – Apostolic Christianity; The Second Period of Church History – Ante-Nicene Christianity; The Third Period of Church History – The Church in Union with the Roman Empire; The Fourth Period of Church History – The Church among the Barbarians; The Fifth Period of Church History – From Gregory VII to Boniface VIII A. D. 1049–1294; The Sixth Period of Church History – From Boniface VIII to Martin Luther ; The Seventh Period of Church History – The Reformation.
Explorations and Reflections of an Indian Guyanese Hindu
Author: Ramesh Gampat
Pubpsher: Xlibris Corporation
Christian Missionaries worked hard to convert immigrants. Their first order of business was to denigrate Hinduism, designate Hindus as heathen, and disparage their culture, food and even attire. Immigrants stubbornly resisted, led by the tiny educated elite, including Brhmaas whom we call Brahmins. Conversion was a failure at least up to the end of the 19th century but picked up a self-generating momentum thereafter. The result is that the share of Hindus in Guyana’s Indian population declined from 83.5 percent in 1880 to 62.8 percent in 2012. The largest portion of the contraction was lost to Christianity. The loss notwithstanding, even a casual observer would conclude that Guyanese Hindus, at home and in the Diaspora, are a very religious people. Many of us do a jhandi or havan once annually; others do the more elaborate and costlier yajña, where everyone is welcome, once or twice in their lifetime. Most of us do a short daily puja – prayers, offerings, reading the stras and listening to bhajan – in our homes. An important, but perhaps unintended, way immigrants countered conversion to Christianity was an unplanned movement towards a “synthesis” that brought Hindus, regardless of caste or sect, under a “unitary form of Hinduism.” The “synthesis” began around the 1870s and was completed by the 1930s to the 1950s. Guyanese Hindus call the unified corpus of religious beliefs and practices that emerged from the “synthesis” Sanatana Dharma. Ramesh Gampat labels it Plantation Hinduism in this path-breaking book. The book argues that the brand of Hinduism practiced is inconsistent with Sanatana Dharma, called Vednta by the more philosophically inclined. Plantation Hinduism features an extraordinary dependence upon purohits (pandits), which has anaesthetized the Hindu mind and render him unable to think, question and inquire when it comes to Dharma. Rituals and bhakti have been degraded and turned into desire-motivated worship; devats have been misconstrued as Brahman rather than as limited manifestation of the one non-dual pure Consciousness; belief in the multiplicity of gods encourages image worship; and superstitions anchor Guyanese Hindus to tradition and mere belief. Plantation Hinduism is little more than desire-motivated actions, dogmas and superstitions. Absent is the idea that Sanatana Dharma is a spiritual science no less scientific than hard sciences, such as physics and astronomy. The central message of Vednta is the innate divinity of every person and the freedom to realize that divinity through anubhava, direct personal experience of Supreme Reality.
The British & Irish Lions are one of the most famous and feted teams in the world of rugby. Every four years, the Lions—selected from the national sides of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland—head to the southern hemisphere to do battle with New Zealand, Australia, or South Africa. 125 Years of the British & Irish Lions covers the entire period of the Lions’ existence, from the first recorded rugby tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1888 to the series-winning tour to Australia in 2013. It highlights the fulfillment, pride, and passion that every British or Irish player feels upon being selected to play as a Lion, and celebrates the key moments that have made the Lions such a magical part of rugby folklore. The Lions stand unique in the game as the last true tourists. They enjoy phenomenal support, as highlighted by the tens of thousands who now follow the Lions on their tours to the southern hemisphere. Never was this more true than in Australia in 2013. The newly revised and updated edition of 125 Years of the British & Irish Lions includes a full account of the 2013 Six Nations tournament and how the Lions triumphed to end a 16-year period of disappointment.