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This eighth edition of Solomon, Berg, Martin Biology continues to convey our vision of the dynamic science of biology and how it affects every aspect of our lives, from our health and behavior to the challenging environmental issues that confront us. Recent discoveries in the biological sciences have increased our understanding of both the unity and diversity of life’s processes and adaptations. With this understanding, we have become more aware of our interdependence with the vast diversity of organisms with which we share planet Earth. BIOLOGY IS A BOOK FOR STUDENTS The study of biology can be an exciting journey of discovery for beginning biology students. To that end, we seek to help students better appreciate Earth’s diverse organisms, their remarkable adaptations to the environment, and their evolutionary and ecological relationships. We also want students to appreciate the workings of science and the contributions of scientists whose discoveries not only expand our knowledge of biology but also help shape and protect the future of our planet. Biology provides insight into what science is, how scientists work, what the roles are of the many scientists who have contributed to our current understanding of biology, and how scientifi c knowledge affects daily life. Since the fi rst edition of Biology, we have tried to present the principles of biology in an integrated way that is accurate, interesting, and conceptually accessible to students. In this eighth edition of Biology, we continue this tradition. We also continue to present biology in an inquiry-based framework. Many professors interpret inquiry as a learning method that takes place in the laboratory as students perform experiments. Laboratory research is certainly an integral part of inquiry-based learning. But inquiry is also a way of learning in which the student actively pursues some line of knowledge outside the laboratory. In Biology, we have always presented the history of scientifi c advances, including scientifi c debates, to help students understand that science is a process (that is, a fi eld of investigative inquiry) as well as a body of knowledge (the product of inquiry). NEW In Biology, Eighth Edition, we make a concerted effort to further integrate inquiry-based learning into the textbook with the inclusion of two new features: Key Experiment fi gures and Analyzing Data questions. Key Experiment fi gures encourage students to evaluate investigative approaches that real scientists have taken. Analyzing Data questions require students to actively interpret experimental data presented in the text. Throughout the text, we stimulate interest by relating concepts to experiences within the student’s frame of reference. By helping students make such connections, we facilitate their mastery of general concepts. We hope the combined effect of an engaging writing style and interesting features will fascinate students and encourage them to continue their study of biology. THE SOLOMON/BERG/MARTIN LEARNING SYSTEM In the eighth edition we have refi ned our highly successful Learning System, which concentrates on learning objectives and outcomes. Mastering biology is challenging, particularly because the subject of biology is fi lled with so many facts that must be integrated into the framework of general biological principles. To help students, we provide Learning Objectives both for the course and for each major section of every chapter. At the end of each section, we provide Review questions based on the learning objectives so students can assess their mastery of the material presented in the section. Throughout the book, students are directed to Thomson- NOW, a powerful online diagnostic tool that helps students assess their study needs and master the chapter objectives. After taking a pretest on ThomsonNOW, students receive feedback based on their answers as well as a Personalized Study plan with links to animations and other resources keyed to their specifi c learning needs. Selected illustrations in the text are also keyed to Animated fi gures in ThomsonNOW. Course Learning Objectives At the end of a successful study of introductory biology, the student can demonstrate mastery of the subject by responding accurately to the following Course Learning Objectives, or Outcomes: • Design an experiment to test a given hypothesis, using the procedure and terminology of the scientifi c method. • Cite the cell theory, and relate structure to function in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. • Describe the theory of evolution, explain why it is the principal unifying concept in biology, and discuss natural selection as the primary agent of evolutionary change. • Explain the role of genetic information in all species, and discuss applications of genetics that affect society. • Describe several mechanisms by which cells and organisms transfer information, including the use of nucleic acids, chemical signals (such as hormones and pheromones), electrical signals (for example, neural transmission), signal transduction, sounds, and visual displays. • Argue for or against the classifi cation of organisms in three domains and six kingdoms, characterizing each of these clades; based on your knowledge of genetics and evolution, give specifi c examples of the unity and diversity of these organisms. • Compare the structural adaptations, life processes, and life cycles of a prokaryote, protist, fungus, plant, and animal. • Defi ne homeostasis, and give examples of regulatory mechanisms, including feedback systems. • Trace the fl ow of matter and energy through a photosynthetic cell and a nonphotosynthetic cell, and through the biosphere, comparing the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers. • Describe the study of ecology at the levels of an individual organism, a population, a community, and an ecosystem. Pedagogical Features We use numerous learning strategies to increase the student’s success: • NEW A list of Key Concepts at the beginning of each chapter provides a chapter overview. • Learning Objectives at the beginning of each major section in the chapter indicate, in behavioral terms, what the student must do to demonstrate mastery of the material in that section . • Each major section of the chapter is followed by a series of Review questions that assess comprehension by asking the student to describe, explain, compare, contrast, or illustrate important concepts. The Review questions are based on the section Learning Objectives. • Concept Statement Subheads introduce sections, previewing and summarizing the key idea or ideas to be discussed in that section. • Sequence Summaries within the text simplify and summarize information presented in paragraph form. For example, paragraphs describing blood circulation through the body or the steps by which cells take in certain materials are followed by a Sequence Summary listing the structures or steps. • Focus On boxes explore issues of special relevance to students, such as the effects of smoking or alcohol abuse. These boxes also provide a forum for discussing certain topics of current interest in more detail, such as the smallest ancient humans (Homo fl oresiensis), worldwide declining amphibian populations, and Alzheimer’s disease. • Numerous Tables, many illustrated, help the student organize and summarize material presented in the text. • A Summary with Key Terms at the end of each chapter is organized around the chapter Learning Objectives. This summary provides a review of the material, and because selected key terms are boldface in the summary, students are provided the opportunity to study vocabulary words within the context of related concepts. • End-of-chapter questions provide students with the opportunity to evaluate their understanding of the material in the chapter. Test Your Understanding consists of multiplechoice questions, some of which are based on the recall of important terms, whereas others challenge students to integrate their knowledge. Answers to the Test Your Understanding questions are provided in Appendix E. A series of thought-provoking Critical Thinking questions encourages the student to apply the concepts just learned to new situations or to make connections among important concepts. NEW Every chapter has one or more Evolution Link questions in the Critical Thinking section. NEW Many chapters contain one or more Analyzing Data questions based on data presented in the chapter. • The Glossary at the end of the book, the most comprehensive glossary found in any biology text, provides precise defi - nitions of terms. The Glossary is especially useful because it is extensively cross-referenced and includes pronunciations. The vertical blue bar along the margin facilitates rapid access to the Glossary. The companion website also includes glossary fl ash cards with audio pronunciations. • NEW An updated and expanded art program brings to life, reinforces, and expands concepts discussed in the text. This edition includes Key Experiment fi gures, which emphasize the scientifi c process in both classic and modern research; examples include Figures 9-7, 17-2, 36-7, and 50-8. Also new to this edition are Key Points stated in process diagrams of complex topics; examples include Figures 28-19 and 54-2. Many of these fi gures have numbered parts that show sequences of events in biological processes or life cycles. Numerous photographs, both alone and combined with line art, help students grasp concepts by connecting the “real” to the “ideal.” The line art uses devices such as orientation icons to help the student put the detailed fi gures into the broad context. We use symbols and colors consistently throughout the book to help students connect concepts. For example, the same four colors and shapes are used throughout the book to identify guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine. WHAT’S NEW: AN OVERVIEW OF BIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION Three themes are interwoven throughout Biology: the evolution of life, the transmission of biological information, and the fl ow of energy through living systems. As we introduce the concepts xxviii Preface www.thomsonedu.com/biology/solomon of modern biology, we explain how these themes are connected and how life depends on them. Educators present the major topics of an introductory biology course in a variety of orders. For this reason, we carefully designed the eight parts of this book so that they do not depend heavily on preceding chapters and parts. This fl exible organization means that an instructor can present the 56 chapters in any number of sequences with pedagogical success. Chapter 1, which introduces the student to the major principles of biology, provides a good springboard for future discussions, whether the professor prefers a “top-down” or “bottom-up” approach. In this edition, as in previous editions, we examined every line of every chapter for accuracy and currency, and we made a serious attempt to update every topic and verify all new material. The following brief survey provides a general overview of the organization of Biology and some changes made to the eighth edition. Part 1: The Organization of Life The six chapters that make up Part 1 provide basic background knowledge. We begin Chapter 1 with a new discussion of research on heart repair and then introduce the main themes of the book—evolution, energy transfer, and information transfer. Chapter 1 then examines several fundamental concepts in biology and the nature of the scientifi c process, including a discussion of systems biology. Chapters 2 and 3, which focus on the molecular level of organization, establish the foundations in chemistry necessary for understanding biological processes. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the cell level of organization. Chapter 4 contains additional information on microtubules, microfi laments, and motor proteins; Chapter 5 has expanded coverage of transport proteins and a new section on uniporters, symporters, and antiporters. NEW In the eighth edition we have added a new chapter, Chapter 6, on cell communication, because recent studies of cell signaling, including receptor function and signal transduction, are providing new understanding of many life processes, particularly at the cell level. Part 2: Energy Transfer through Living Systems Because all living cells need energy for life processes, the fl ow of energy through living systems—that is, capturing energy and converting it to usable forms—is a basic theme of Biology. Chapter 7 examines how cells capture, transfer, store, and use energy. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss the metabolic adaptations by which organisms obtain and use energy through cellular respiration and photosynthesis. New to Chapter 9 is a summary section on the importance of photosynthesis to plants and other organisms. Part 3: The Continuity of Life: Genetics We have updated and expanded the eight chapters of Part 3 for the eighth edition. We begin this unit by discussing mitosis and meiosis in Chapter 10, which includes new sections on binary fi ssion and prometaphase in mitosis. Chapter 11, which considers Mendelian genetics and related patterns of inheritance, has a new section on recognition of Mendel’s work, including discussion of the chromosome theory of inheritance. We then turn our attention to the structure and replication of DNA in Chapter 12, including a new section on proofreading and repair of errors in DNA. Chapter 13 has a discussion of RNA and protein synthesis, including a new section and summary table on the different kinds of eukaryotic RNA. Gene regulation is discussed in Chapter 14, which includes new paragraphs on genomic imprinting and epigenetic inheritance. In Chapter 15, we focus on DNA technology and genomics, including new material on DNA analysis, genomics, expressed sequence tags, RNAi, and the importance of GM crops to U.S. agriculture. These chapters build the necessary foundation for exploring the human genome in Chapter 16, which has expanded discussion of abnormalities in chromosome structure and on X-linked genes affecting intelligence. In Chapter 17, we introduce the role of genes in development, emphasizing studies on specifi c model organisms that have led to spectacular advances in this fi eld; changes include new material on RNAi as a powerful tool in developmental genetics and discussion of cancer as a stem cell disease. NEW The art program in the genetics section includes many new pieces, such as Figures 10-8 (cohesins), 10-11 (binary fi ssion), 12-14 (DNA repair), 13-11 (linkage of amino acid to its specifi c RNA), 13-18 (photo of plants with altered miRNA), 14-1 (lean pig with IGF2 mutation), 14-13 (protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasomes), 15-9 (Southern blotting technique), 15-15 (DNA fi ngerprinting), 16-5 (common abnormalities in chromosome structure), 16-10 (gene therapy in mouse bone marrow cells), and 17-6 (six model organisms). Part 4: The Continuity of Life: Evolution Although we explore evolution as the cornerstone of biology throughout the book, Part 4 delves into the subject in depth. We provide the history behind the discovery of the theory of evolution, the mechanisms by which it occurs, and the methods by which it is studied and tested. Chapter 18 introduces the Darwinian concept of evolution and presents several kinds of evidence that support the theory of evolution. In Chapter 19, we examine evolution at the population level. Chapter 20 describes the evolution of new species and discusses aspects of macroevolution. Chapter 21 summarizes the evolutionary history of life on Earth. In Chapter 22, we recount the evolution of the primates, including humans. Many topics and examples have been added to the eighth edition, such as new material on developmental biology as evidence for evolution in Galápagos fi nches, the founder effect and genetic drift with respect to Finns and Icelanders, ways of defi ning a species, the Archaeon and Proterozoic eons, and a new Focus On box on Homo fl oresiensis. Part 5: The Diversity of Life In this edition of Biology, we continue to emphasize the cladistic approach. We use an evolutionary framework to discuss each group of organisms, presenting current hypotheses of how groups of organisms are related. Chapter 23 discusses why organ- isms are classifi ed and provides insight into the scientifi c process of deciding how they are classifi ed. New advances have enabled us to further clarify the connection between evolutionary history and systematics in the eighth edition. Chapter 24, which focuses on the viruses and prokaryotes, contains a major revision of prokaryote classifi cation and new sections on evolution in bacteria and on biofi lms. Chapter 25 refl ects the developing consensus on protist diversity and summarizes evolutionary relationships among the eight major eukaryote groups. Chapter 26 describes the fungi and includes an updated phylogeny with a discussion of members of phylum Glomeromycota and their role as mycorrhizal fungi. Chapters 27 and 28 present the members of the plant kingdom; Chapter 28 includes new material that updates the evolution of the angiosperms. In Chapters 29 through 31, which cover the diversity of animals, we place more emphasis on molecular systematics. We have also added new sections on animal origins and the evolution of development. Part 6: Structure and Life Processes in Plants Part 6 introduces students to the fascinating plant world. It stresses relationships between structure and function in plant cells, tissues, organs, and individual organisms. In Chapter 32, we introduce plant structure, growth, and differentiation. Chapters 33 through 35 discuss the structural and physiological adaptations of leaves, stems, and roots. Chapter 36 describes reproduction in fl owering plants, including asexual reproduction, fl owers, fruits, and seeds. Chapter 37 focuses on growth responses and regulation of growth. In the eighth edition, we present the latest fi ndings generated by the continuing explosion of knowledge in plant biology, particularly at the molecular level. New topics include the molecular basis of mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses, molecular aspects of fl oral initiation at apical meristems, self-incompatibility, and the way that auxin acts by signal transduction. Chapter 36 also discusses a new experiment fi gure on the evolutionary implications of a single mutation in a gene for fl ower color that resulted in a shift in animal pollinators. Part 7: Structure and Life Processes in Animals In Part 7, we provide a strong emphasis on comparative animal physiology, showing the structural, functional, and behavioral adaptations that help animals meet environmental challenges. We use a comparative approach to examine how various animal groups have solved similar and diverse problems. In Chapter 38, we discuss the basic tissues and organ systems of the animal body, homeostasis, and the ways that animals regulate their body temperature. Chapter 39 focuses on body coverings, skeletons, and muscles. In Chapters 40 through 42, we discuss neural signaling, neural regulation, and sensory reception. In Chapters 43 through 50, we compare how different animal groups carry on specifi c life processes, such as internal transport, internal defense, gas exchange, digestion, reproduction, and development. Each chapter in this part considers the human adaptations for the life processes being discussed. Part 7 ends with a discussion of behavioral adaptations in Chapter 51. Refl ecting recent research fi ndings, we have added new material on homeostasis and the process of contraction in whole muscle. We have also updated and added new material on neurotransmitters, information processing, thermoreceptors, electroreceptors and magnetoreception, endocrine regulation of blood pressure, Toll-like receptors, cytokines, cancer treatment, HIV and autoimmune diseases, new nutrition guidelines, obesity, maintenance of fl uid and electrolyte balance, steroid action that allows rapid signaling, melanocytestimulating hormones (MSH), diabetes, anabolic steroids, menopause, the estrous cycle, contraception, and STDs. In Chapter 51, we have added new information on cognition, communication, interspecifi c and intraspecifi c selection, parental care, and helping behavior. Part 8: The Interactions of Life: Ecology Part 8 focuses on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems and on the application of ecological principles to disciplines such as conservation biology. Chapters 52 through 55 give the student an understanding of the ecology of populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere, whereas Chapter 56 focuses on global environmental issues. Among the many changes in this unit are new material on secondary productivity, top-down and bottom-up processes, characteristics of endangered species, deforestation, and a greatly expanded section on conservation biology. A COMPREHENSIVE PACKAGE FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING A carefully designed supplement package is available to further facilitate learning. In addition to the usual print resources, we are pleased to present student multimedia tools that have been developed in conjunction with the text. Resources for Students Study Guide to Accompany Biology, Eighth Edition, by Ronald S. Daniel of California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; Sharon C. Daniel of Orange Coast College; and Ronald L. Taylor. Extensively updated for this edition, the study guide provides the student with many opportunities to review chapter concepts. Multiple-choice study questions, coloring-book exercises, vocabulary-building exercises, and many other types of activelearning tools are provided to suit different cognitive learning styles. A Problem-Based Guide to Basic Genetics by Donald Cronkite of Hope College. This brief guide provides students with a systematic approach to solving genetics problems, along with numerous solved problems and practice problems. Spanish Glossary. NEW This Spanish glossary of biology terms is available to Spanish-speaking students. xxx Preface www.thomsonedu.com/biology/solomon Website. The content-rich companion website that accompanies Biology, Eighth Edition, gives students access to high-quality resources, including focused quizzing, a Glossary complete with pronunciations, InfoTrac® College Edition readings and exercises, Internet activities, and annotated web links. For these and other resources, visit www.thomsonedu.com /biology/solomon. ThomsonNOW. NEW This updated and expanded online learning tool helps assess students’ personal study needs and focus their time. By taking a pretest, they are provided with a Personalized Study plan that directs them to text sections and narrated animations—many of which are new to this edition—that they need to review. If they need to brush up on basic skills, the How Do I Prepare? feature walks them through tutorials on basic math, chemistry, study skills, and word roots. Audio. NEW This edition of Biology is accompanied by a range of “mobile content” resources, including downloadable study skill tips and concept reviews in MP3 format for use on a portable MP3 player. Virtual Biology Laboratory 3.0 by Beneski and Waber. NEW These 14 online laboratory experiments, designed within a simulation format, allow students to “do” science by acquiring data, performing experiments, and using data to explain biological concepts. Assigned activities automatically fl ow to the instructor’s grade book. New self-designed activities ask students to plan their procedures around an experimental question and write up their results. Additional Resources for Instructors The instructors’ Examination Copy for this edition lists a comprehensive package of print and multimedia supplements, including online resources, available to qualifi ed adopters. Please ask your local sales representative for details. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The development and production of the eighth edition of Biology required extensive interaction and cooperation among the authors and many individuals in our family, social, and professional environments. We thank our editors, colleagues, students, family, and friends for their help and support. Preparing a book of this complexity is challenging and requires a cohesive, talented, and hardworking professional team. We appreciate the contributions of everyone on the editorial and production staff at Brooks/ Cole/Thomson Learning who worked on this eighth edition of Biology. We thank Michelle Julet, Vice President and Editor-in- Chief, and Peter Adams, Executive Editor, for their commitment to this book and for their support in making the eighth edition happen. We appreciate Stacy Best and Kara Kindstrom, our Marketing Managers, whose expertise ensured that you would know about our new edition. We appreciate the hard work of our dedicated Developmental Editor, Suzannah Alexander, who provided us with valuable input as she guided the eighth edition through its many phases. We especially thank Suzannah for sharing her artistic talent and for her great ideas for visual presentations. We appreciate the help of Senior Content Project Manager Cheryll Linthicum, Content Project Manager Jennifer Risden, and Project Editor Jamie Armstrong, who expertly shepherded the project. We thank Editorial Assistants Kristin Marrs and Kate Franco for quickly providing us with resources whenever we needed them. We appreciate the efforts of photo editor Don Murie. We thank Creative Director Rob Hugel, Art Director Lee Friedman, Text Designer John Walker, and Cover Designer Robin Terra. We also thank Joy Westberg for developing the Instructor’s Preface. We are grateful to Keli Amann, Technology Project Manager, who coordinated the many high-tech components of the computerized aspects of our Learning System. We thank Lauren Oliveira, Assistant Editor, for coordinating the print supplements. These dedicated professionals and many others at Brooks/Cole provided the skill, attention, and good humor needed to produce Biology, Eighth Edition. We thank them for their help and support throughout this project. A Biology Advisory Board greatly enhanced our preparation of the eighth edition of Biology. We thank these professionals for their insight and suggestions: Susan R. Barnum, Miami University, Oxford, OH, Molecular biology of cyanobacteria Virginia McDonough, Hope College, Molecular biology of lipid metabolism David K. Bruck, San Jose State University, Plant cell biology Lee F. Johnson, The Ohio State University, Molecular genetics, biochemistry Karen A. Curto, University of Pittsburgh, Cell signaling Robert J. Kosinski, Clemson University, Introductory biology laboratory development Tim Schuh, St. Cloud State University, Developmental biology Robert W. Yost, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, Physiology, animal form and function We are grateful to Bruce Mohn of Rutgers University for his expert advice on dinosaur and bird evolution and to Bill Norris of Western New Mexico University for his help with the book’s cladograms. We thank Dr. Susan Pross, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, for her helpful suggestions for updating the immunology chapter. We greatly appreciate the expert assistance of Mary Kay Hartung of Florida Gulf Coast University, who came to our rescue whenever we had diffi culty fi nding needed research studies from the Internet. We thank doctoral student Lois Ball of the University of South Florida, Department of Biology, who reviewed several chapters and offered helpful suggestions. We thank obstetrician, gynecologist Dr. Amy Solomon for her input regarding pregnancy, childbirth, conception, and sexually transmitted diseases. We thank our families and friends for their understanding, support, and encouragement as we struggled through many re- visions and deadlines. We especially thank Mical Solomon, Dr. Amy Solomon, Dr. Kathleen M. Heide, Alan Berg, Jennifer Berg, Dr. Charles Martin, and Margaret Martin for their support and input. We greatly appreciate the many hours Alan Berg devoted to preparing the manuscript. Our colleagues and students who have used our book have provided valuable input by sharing their responses to past editions of Biology. We thank them and ask again for their comments and suggestions as they use this new edition. We can be reached through the Internet at our website www.thomsonedu.com / biology/solomon or through our editors at Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning. We express our thanks to the many biologists who have read the manuscript during various stages of its development and provided us with valuable suggestions for improving it. Eighth edition reviewers include the following: Joseph J. Arruda, Pittsburg State University Amir M. Assadi-Rad, San Joaquin Delta College Douglas J. Birks, Wilmington College William L. Bischoff, University of Toledo Catherine S. Black, Idaho State University Andrew R. Blaustein, Oregon State University Scott Bowling, Auburn University W. Randy Brooks, Florida Atlantic University Mark Browning, Purdue University Arthur L. Buikema Jr., Virginia Tech Anne Bullerjahn, Owens Community College Carolyn J. W. Bunde, Idaho State University Scott Burt, Truman State University David Byres, Florida Community College–Jacksonville Jeff Carmichael, University of North Dakota Domenic Castignetti, Loyola University of Chicago Geoffrey A. Church, Fairfi eld University Barbara Collins, California Lutheran University Linda W. Crow, Montgomery College Karen J. Dalton, Community College of Baltimore County Mark Decker, University of Minnesota Jonathan J. Dennis, University of Alberta Philippa M. Drennan, Loyola Marymount University David W. Eldridge, Baylor University H. W. Elmore, Marshall University Cheryld L. Emmons, Alfred University Robert C. Evans, Rutgers University, Camden John Geiser, Western Michigan University William J. Higgins, University of Maryland Jeffrey P. Hill, Idaho State University Walter S. Judd, University of Florida Mary Jane Keleher, Salt Lake Community College Scott L. Kight, Montclair State University Joanne Kivela Tillotson, Purchase College SUNY Will Kleinelp, Middlesex County College Kenneth M. Klemow, Wilkes University Jonathan Lyon, Merrimack College Blasé Maffi a, University of Miami Kathleen R. Malueg, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs Patricia Matthews, Grand Valley State University David Morgan, Western Washington University Darrel L. Murray, University of Illinois at Chicago William R. Norris, Western New Mexico University James G. Patton, Vanderbilt University Mitch Price, Penn State Susan Pross, University of South Florida Jerry Purcell, San Antonio College Kenneth R. Robinson, Purdue University Darrin Rubino, Hanover College Julie C. Rutherford, Concordia College Andrew M. Scala, Dutchess Community College Pramila Sen, Houston Community College Mark A. Sheridan, North Dakota State University Marcia Shofner, University of Maryland Phillip Snider, Gadsden State Community College David Stanton, Saginaw Valley State University William Terzaghi, Wilkes University Keti Venovski, Lake Sumter Community College Steven D. Wilt, Bellarmine University James R. Yount, Brevard Community College We would also like to thank the hundreds of previous edition reviewers, both professors and students, who are too numerous to mention. Without their contributions, Biology, Eighth Edition, would not have been the same. They asked thoughtful questions, provided new perspectives, offered alternative wordings to clarify diffi cult passages, and informed us of possible errors. We are truly indebted to their excellent feedback. xxxii Preface www.thomsonedu.com/biology/solomon Biology is a challenging subject. The thousands of students we have taught have differed in their life goals and learning styles. Some have had excellent backgrounds in science; others, poor ones. Regardless of their backgrounds, it is common for students taking their fi rst college biology course to fi nd that they must work harder than they expected. You can make the task easier by using approaches to learning that have been successful for a broad range of our students over the years. Be sure to use the Learning System we use in this book. It is described in the Preface. Make a Study Schedule Many college professors suggest that students study 3 hours for every hour spent in class. This major investment in study time is one of the main differences between high school and college. To succeed academically, college students must learn to manage their time effectively. The actual number of hours you spend studying biology will vary depending on how quickly you learn the material, as well as on your course load and personal responsibilities, such as work schedules and family commitments. The most successful students are often those who are best organized. At the beginning of the semester, make a detailed daily calendar. Mark off the hours you are in each class, along with travel time to and from class if you are a commuter. After you get your course syllabi, add to your calendar the dates of all exams, quizzes, papers, and reports. As a reminder, it also helps to add an entry for each major exam or assignment 1 week before the test or due date. Now add your work schedule and other personal commitments to your calendar. Using a calendar helps you fi nd convenient study times. Many of our successful biology students set aside 2 hours a day to study biology rather than depend on a weekly marathon session for 8 or 10 hours during the weekend (when that kind of session rarely happens). Put your study hours into your daily calendar, and stick to your schedule. Determine Whether the Professor Emphasizes Text Material or Lecture Notes Some professors test almost exclusively on material covered in lecture. Others rely on their students’ learning most, or even all, of the content in assigned chapters. Find out what your professor’s requirements are, because the way you study will vary accordingly . How to study when professors test lecture material If lectures are the main source of examination questions, make your lecture notes as complete and organized as possible. Before going to class, skim over the chapter, identifying key terms and examining the main fi gures, so that you can take effective lecture notes. Spend no more than 1 hour on this. Within 24 hours after class, rewrite (or type) your notes. Before rewriting, however, read the notes and make marginal notes about anything that is not clear. Then read the corresponding material in your text. Highlight or underline any sections that clarify questions you had in your notes. Read the entire chapter, including parts that are not covered in lecture. This extra information will give you breadth of understanding and will help you grasp key concepts. After reading the text, you are ready to rewrite your notes, incorporating relevant material from the text. It also helps to use the Glossary to fi nd defi nitions for unfamiliar terms. Many students develop a set of fl ash cards of key terms and concepts as a way to study. Flash cards are a useful tool to help you learn scientifi c terminology. They are portable and can be used at times when other studying is not possible, for example, when riding a bus. Flash cards are not effective when the student tries to secondguess the professor. (“She won’t ask this, so I won’t make a fl ash card of it.”) Flash cards are also a hindrance when students rely on them exclusively. Studying fl ash cards instead of reading the text is a bit like reading the fi rst page of each chapter in a mystery novel: It’s hard to fi ll in the missing parts, because you are learning the facts in a disconnected way. How to study when professors test material in the book If the assigned readings in the text are going to be tested, you must use your text intensively. After reading the chapter introduction, read the list of Learning Objectives for the fi rst section. These objectives are written in behavioral terms; that is, they ask you to “do” something in order to demonstrate mastery. The objectives give you a concrete set of goals for each section of the chapter. At the end of each section, you will fi nd Review questions keyed to To the Student the Learning Objectives. Test yourself, going back over the material to check your responses. Read each chapter section actively. Many students read and study passively. An active learner always has questions in mind and is constantly making connections. For example, there are many processes that must be understood in biology. Don’t try to blindly memorize these; instead, think about causes and effects so that every process becomes a story. Eventually, you’ll see that many processes are connected by common elements. You will probably have to read each chapter two or three times before mastering the material. The second and third times through will be much easier than the fi rst, because you’ll be reinforcing concepts that you have already partially learned. After reading the chapter, write a four- to six-page chapter outline by using the subheads as the body of the outline (fi rstlevel heads are boldface, in color, and all caps; second-level heads are in color and not all caps). Flesh out your outline by adding important concepts and boldface terms with defi nitions. Use this outline when preparing for the exam. Now it is time to test yourself. Answer the Test Your Understanding questions, and check your answers. Write answers to each of the Critical Thinking questions. Finally, review the Learning Objectives in the Chapter Summary, and try to answer them before reading the summary provided. If your professor has told you that some or all of the exam will be short-answer or essay format, write out the answer for each Learning Objective. Remember that this is a self-test. If you do not know an answer to a question, fi nd it in the text. If you can’t fi nd the answer, use the Index. Learn the Vocabulary One stumbling block for many students is learning the many terms that make up the language of biology. In fact, it would be much more diffi cult to learn and communicate if we did not have this terminology, because words are really tools for thinking. Learning terminology generally becomes easier if you realize that most biological terms are modular. They consist of mostly Latin and Greek roots; once you learn many of these, you will have a good idea of the meaning of a new word even before it is defi ned. For this reason, we have included an Appendix on Understanding Biological Terms. To be sure you understand the precise defi nition of a term, use the Index and Glossary. The more you use biological terms in speech and writing, the more comfortable you will be. Form a Study Group Active learning is facilitated if you do some of your studying in a small group. In a study group, the roles of teacher and learner can be interchanged: a good way to learn material is to teach. A study group lets you meet challenges in a nonthreatening environment and can provide some emotional support. Study groups are effective learning tools when combined with individual study of text and lecture notes. If, however, you and other members of your study group have not prepared for your meetings by studying individually in advance, the study session can be a waste of time. Prepare for the Exam Your calendar tells you it is now 1 week before your fi rst biology exam. If you have been following these suggestions, you are well prepared and will need only some last-minute reviewing. No allnighters will be required. During the week prior to the exam, spend 2 hours each day actively studying your lecture notes or chapter outlines. It helps many students to read these notes out loud (most people listen to what they say!). Begin with the fi rst lecture /chapter covered on the exam, and continue in the order on the lecture syllabus. Stop when you have reached the end of your 2-hour study period. The following day, begin where you stopped the previous day. When you reach the end of your notes, start at the beginning and study them a second time. The material should be very familiar to you by the second or third time around. At this stage, use your textbook only to answer questions or clarify important points. The night before the exam, do a little light studying, eat a nutritious dinner, and get a full night’s sleep. That way, you’ll arrive in class on exam day with a well-rested body (and brain) and the self-confi dence that goes with being well prepared. Eldra P. Solomon Linda R. Berg Diana W. Martin ELDRA P. SOLOMON has written several leading college-level textbooks in biology and in human anatomy and physiology. Her books have been translated into more than 10 languages. Dr. Solomon earned an M.S. from the University of Florida and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of South Florida. Dr. Solomon taught biology and nursing students for more than 20 years. She is adjunct professor and member of the Graduate Faculty of the University of South Florida. In addition to being a biologist and science author, Dr. Solomon is a biopsychologist with a special interest in the neuro physiology of traumatic experience. Her research has focused on the relationships among stress, emotions, and health and on post-traumatic stress disorder. Dr. Solomon has presented her work in plenary sessions and scientific meetings at many national and international conferences. She has been profiled more than 20 times in leading publications, including Who’s Who in America, Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, Who’s Who in Medicine and Healthcare, Who’s Who in American Education, Who’s Who of American Women, and Who’s Who in the World. LINDA R. BERG is an award-winning teacher and textbook author. She received a B.S. in science education, an M.S. in botany, and a Ph.D. in plant physiology from the University of Maryland. Her research focused on the evolutionary implications of steroid biosynthetic pathways in various organisms. Dr. Berg taught at the University of Maryland at College Park for 17 years and at St. Petersburg College in Florida for 8 years. During her career, she taught introductory courses in biology, botany, and environmental science to thousands of students. At the University of Maryland, she received numerous teaching and service awards. Dr. Berg is also the recipient of many national and regional awards, including the National Science Teachers Association Award for Innovations in College Science Teaching, the Nation’s Capital Area Disabled Student Services Award, and the Washington Academy of Sciences Award in University Science Teaching. During her career as a professional science writer, Dr. Berg has authored or co-authored several leading college science textbooks. Her writing reflects her teaching style and love of science. ABOUT THE AUTHORS DIANA W. MARTIN is the Director of General Biology, Division of Life Sciences, at Rutgers University, New Brunswick Campus. She received an M.S. at Florida State University, where she studied the chromosomes of related plant species to understand their evolutionary relationships. She earned a Ph.D. at the University of Texas at Austin, where she studied the genetics of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and then conducted postdoctoral research at Princeton University. She has taught general biology and other courses at Rutgers for more than 20 years and has been involved in writing textbooks since 1988. She is immensely grateful that her decision to study biology in college has led to a career that allows her many ways to share her excitement about all aspects of biology.