Release on 2012-05-03 | by Claudia Baldoli,Andrew Knapp
France and Italy under Allied Air Attack, 1940-1945
Author: Claudia Baldoli,Andrew Knapp
Pubpsher: A&C Black
France and Italy account for fully one third of all Allied bombs dropped on Europe between 1940 and 1945. Italy received some 370,000 tons of bombs, nearly five times the total dropped on Britain by the Luftwaffe; France, over 570,000, nearly eight times the British figure. In each country, over 55,000 civilians died. Until now, studies of bombing in World War 2 have focused largely on the British and German experiences; few cover France or Italy. Forgotten Blitzes aims to remedy this. It explains the reasons for the Allied offensives, and uses political, social and cultural approaches to explore the challenges faced by states and peoples as the bombs fell. Massive research in local and national archives across four countries, complemented by diaries and personal memoirs, has allowed the authors to build a detailed, comparative picture of the impact of bombing on states, local authorities and individuals.
The temptations of a new genetically informed eugenics and of a revived faith-based, world-wide political stance, this study of the interaction of science, religion, politics and the culture of celebrity in twentieth-century Europe and America offers a fascinating and important contribution to the history of this movement. The author looks at the career of French-born physician and Nobel Prize winner, Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), as a way of understanding the popularization of eugenics through religious faith, scientific expertise, cultural despair and right-wing politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Carrel was among the most prestigious experimental surgeons of his time who also held deeply illiberal views. In Man, the Unknown (1935), he endorsed fascism and called for the elimination of the "unfit." The book became a huge international success, largely thanks to its promotion by Readers' Digest as well as by the author's friendship with Charles Lindbergh. In 1941, he went into the service of the French pro-German regime of Vichy, which appointed him to head an institution of eugenics research. His influence was remarkable, affecting radical Islamic groups as well Le Pen's Front National that celebrated him as the "founder of ecology."