Neural Network Methods In Natural Language Processing

Author: Yoav Goldberg
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 162705295X
Size: 66.25 MB
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Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.

Bayesian Analysis In Natural Language Processing

Author: Shay Cohen
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 168173527X
Size: 43.81 MB
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Natural language processing (NLP) went through a profound transformation in the mid-1980s when it shifted to make heavy use of corpora and data-driven techniques to analyze language. Since then, the use of statistical techniques in NLP has evolved in several ways. One such example of evolution took place in the late 1990s or early 2000s, when full-fledged Bayesian machinery was introduced to NLP. This Bayesian approach to NLP has come to accommodate various shortcomings in the frequentist approach and to enrich it, especially in the unsupervised setting, where statistical learning is done without target prediction examples. In this book, we cover the methods and algorithms that are needed to fluently read Bayesian learning papers in NLP and to do research in the area. These methods and algorithms are partially borrowed from both machine learning and statistics and are partially developed "in-house" in NLP. We cover inference techniques such as Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and variational inference, Bayesian estimation, and nonparametric modeling. In response to rapid changes in the field, this second edition of the book includes a new chapter on representation learning and neural networks in the Bayesian context. We also cover fundamental concepts in Bayesian statistics such as prior distributions, conjugacy, and generative modeling. Finally, we review some of the fundamental modeling techniques in NLP, such as grammar modeling, neural networks and representation learning, and their use with Bayesian analysis.

Introduction To Natural Language Processing

Author: Jacob Eisenstein
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262042843
Size: 62.18 MB
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A survey of computational methods for understanding, generating, and manipulating human language, which offers a synthesis of classical representations and algorithms with contemporary machine learning techniques. This textbook provides a technical perspective on natural language processing—methods for building computer software that understands, generates, and manipulates human language. It emphasizes contemporary data-driven approaches, focusing on techniques from supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The first section establishes a foundation in machine learning by building a set of tools that will be used throughout the book and applying them to word-based textual analysis. The second section introduces structured representations of language, including sequences, trees, and graphs. The third section explores different approaches to the representation and analysis of linguistic meaning, ranging from formal logic to neural word embeddings. The final section offers chapter-length treatments of three transformative applications of natural language processing: information extraction, machine translation, and text generation. End-of-chapter exercises include both paper-and-pencil analysis and software implementation. The text synthesizes and distills a broad and diverse research literature, linking contemporary machine learning techniques with the field's linguistic and computational foundations. It is suitable for use in advanced undergraduate and graduate-level courses and as a reference for software engineers and data scientists. Readers should have a background in computer programming and college-level mathematics. After mastering the material presented, students will have the technical skill to build and analyze novel natural language processing systems and to understand the latest research in the field.

Deep Learning For Nlp And Speech Recognition

Author: Uday Kamath
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030145964
Size: 11.42 MB
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This textbook explains Deep Learning Architecture, with applications to various NLP Tasks, including Document Classification, Machine Translation, Language Modeling, and Speech Recognition. With the widespread adoption of deep learning, natural language processing (NLP),and speech applications in many areas (including Finance, Healthcare, and Government) there is a growing need for one comprehensive resource that maps deep learning techniques to NLP and speech and provides insights into using the tools and libraries for real-world applications. Deep Learning for NLP and Speech Recognition explains recent deep learning methods applicable to NLP and speech, provides state-of-the-art approaches, and offers real-world case studies with code to provide hands-on experience. Many books focus on deep learning theory or deep learning for NLP-specific tasks while others are cookbooks for tools and libraries, but the constant flux of new algorithms, tools, frameworks, and libraries in a rapidly evolving landscape means that there are few available texts that offer the material in this book. The book is organized into three parts, aligning to different groups of readers and their expertise. The three parts are: Machine Learning, NLP, and Speech Introduction The first part has three chapters that introduce readers to the fields of NLP, speech recognition, deep learning and machine learning with basic theory and hands-on case studies using Python-based tools and libraries. Deep Learning Basics The five chapters in the second part introduce deep learning and various topics that are crucial for speech and text processing, including word embeddings, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks and speech recognition basics. Theory, practical tips, state-of-the-art methods, experimentations and analysis in using the methods discussed in theory on real-world tasks. Advanced Deep Learning Techniques for Text and Speech The third part has five chapters that discuss the latest and cutting-edge research in the areas of deep learning that intersect with NLP and speech. Topics including attention mechanisms, memory augmented networks, transfer learning, multi-task learning, domain adaptation, reinforcement learning, and end-to-end deep learning for speech recognition are covered using case studies.

Deep Learning In Natural Language Processing

Author: Li Deng
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811052093
Size: 56.23 MB
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In recent years, deep learning has fundamentally changed the landscapes of a number of areas in artificial intelligence, including speech, vision, natural language, robotics, and game playing. In particular, the striking success of deep learning in a wide variety of natural language processing (NLP) applications has served as a benchmark for the advances in one of the most important tasks in artificial intelligence. This book reviews the state of the art of deep learning research and its successful applications to major NLP tasks, including speech recognition and understanding, dialogue systems, lexical analysis, parsing, knowledge graphs, machine translation, question answering, sentiment analysis, social computing, and natural language generation from images. Outlining and analyzing various research frontiers of NLP in the deep learning era, it features self-contained, comprehensive chapters written by leading researchers in the field. A glossary of technical terms and commonly used acronyms in the intersection of deep learning and NLP is also provided. The book appeals to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, lecturers and industrial researchers, as well as anyone interested in deep learning and natural language processing.

Learning To Rank For Information Retrieval And Natural Language Processing

Author: Hang Li
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627055851
Size: 53.25 MB
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Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work. The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as two basic ranking tasks, namely ranking creation (or simply ranking) and ranking aggregation. In ranking creation, given a request, one wants to generate a ranking list of offerings based on the features derived from the request and the offerings. In ranking aggregation, given a request, as well as a number of ranking lists of offerings, one wants to generate a new ranking list of the offerings. Ranking creation (or ranking) is the major problem in learning to rank. It is usually formalized as a supervised learning task. The author gives detailed explanations on learning for ranking creation and ranking aggregation, including training and testing, evaluation, feature creation, and major approaches. Many methods have been proposed for ranking creation. The methods can be categorized as the pointwise, pairwise, and listwise approaches according to the loss functions they employ. They can also be categorized according to the techniques they employ, such as the SVM based, Boosting based, and Neural Network based approaches. The author also introduces some popular learning to rank methods in details. These include: PRank, OC SVM, McRank, Ranking SVM, IR SVM, GBRank, RankNet, ListNet & ListMLE, AdaRank, SVM MAP, SoftRank, LambdaRank, LambdaMART, Borda Count, Markov Chain, and CRanking. The author explains several example applications of learning to rank including web search, collaborative filtering, definition search, keyphrase extraction, query dependent summarization, and re-ranking in machine translation. A formulation of learning for ranking creation is given in the statistical learning framework. Ongoing and future research directions for learning to rank are also discussed. Table of Contents: Learning to Rank / Learning for Ranking Creation / Learning for Ranking Aggregation / Methods of Learning to Rank / Applications of Learning to Rank / Theory of Learning to Rank / Ongoing and Future Work

Advances In Artificial Intelligence Iberamia 2018

Author: Guillermo R. Simari
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030039285
Size: 50.80 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th Ibero-American Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IBERAMIA 2018, held in Trujillo, Peru,in November 2018. The 41 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 92 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning under Uncertainty., Multiagent Systems., Game Theory and Economic Paradigms, Game Playing and Interactive Entertainment, Ambient Intelligence, Machine Learning Methods, Cognitive Modeling,General AI, Knowledge Engineering, Computational Sustainability and AI, Heuristic Search and Optimization and much more.

A Guide To Convolutional Neural Networks For Computer Vision

Author: Salman Khan
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1681730227
Size: 45.59 MB
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Computer vision has become increasingly important and effective in recent years due to its wide-ranging applications in areas as diverse as smart surveillance and monitoring, health and medicine, sports and recreation, robotics, drones, and self-driving cars. Visual recognition tasks, such as image classification, localization, and detection, are the core building blocks of many of these applications, and recent developments in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have led to outstanding performance in these state-of-the-art visual recognition tasks and systems. As a result, CNNs now form the crux of deep learning algorithms in computer vision. This self-contained guide will benefit those who seek to both understand the theory behind CNNs and to gain hands-on experience on the application of CNNs in computer vision. It provides a comprehensive introduction to CNNs starting with the essential concepts behind neural networks: training, regularization, and optimization of CNNs. The book also discusses a wide range of loss functions, network layers, and popular CNN architectures, reviews the different techniques for the evaluation of CNNs, and presents some popular CNN tools and libraries that are commonly used in computer vision. Further, this text describes and discusses case studies that are related to the application of CNN in computer vision, including image classification, object detection, semantic segmentation, scene understanding, and image generation. This book is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students, as no prior background knowledge in the field is required to follow the material, as well as new researchers, developers, engineers, and practitioners who are interested in gaining a quick understanding of CNN models.

Pattern Recognition And Machine Intelligence

Author: B. Uma Shankar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319699008
Size: 80.27 MB
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence, PReMI 2017,held in Kolkata, India, in December 2017. The total of 86 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 293 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: pattern recognition and machine learning; signal and image processing; computer vision and video processing; soft and natural computing; speech and natural language processing; bioinformatics and computational biology; data mining and big data analytics; deep learning; spatial data science and engineering; and applications of pattern recognition and machine intelligence.

Statistical Language And Speech Processing

Author: Adrian-Horia Dediu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319257897
Size: 36.27 MB
Format: PDF
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Statistical Language and Speech Processing, SLSP 2015, held in Budapest, Hungary, in November 2015. The 26 full papers presented together with two invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 71 submissions. The papers cover topics such as: anaphora and coreference resolution; authorship identification, plagiarism and spam filtering; computer-aided translation; corpora and language resources; data mining and semantic Web; information extraction; information retrieval; knowledge representation and ontologies; lexicons and dictionaries; machine translation; multimodal technologies; natural language understanding; neural representation of speech and language; opinion mining and sentiment analysis; parsing; part-of-speech tagging; question-answering systems; semantic role labelling; speaker identification and verification; speech and language generation; speech recognition; speech synthesis; speech transcription; spelling correction; spoken dialogue systems; term extraction; text categorisation; text summarisation; and user modeling.