Leibniz Selon Les Nouveaux Essais Sur L Entendement Humain

Author: François Duchesneau
Publisher: Les Editions Fides
ISBN: 9782890079649
Size: 60.68 MB
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Dramatisation d'un dialogue souhaite par Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) mais refuse par John Locke (1632-1704), les Nouveaux Essais sur l'entendement humain (1704) mettent en scene Theophile et Philalethe: et Leibniz pouvait ainsi donner la replique a l'Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690)de Locke. Longtemps consideres comme la simple synthese de la philosophie leibnizienne, les Nouveaux Essais ne nous presentent-ils pas plutot le philosophe de Hanovre empruntant des pistes originales d'analyse et offrant des orientations epistemologiques plus marquees que dans toute autre de ses oeuvres? S'interessant a l'Essay, Leibniz avait declare: ...] j'ai fort medite moi-meme sur ce qui regarde les fondements de nos connaissances. ...] De toutes les recherches il n'y a point de plus importante, puisque c'est la clef de toutes les autres . Ce sont les tenants et les aboutissants de ce jugement de Leibniz, qui fixait ainsi - par anticipation - le propos des Nouveaux Essais, auxquels les auteurs ont ici consacre leurs analyses.

The Early Works 1882 1898 1882 1888 Early Essays And Leibniz S New Essays Concerning The Human Understanding

Author: John Dewey
Publisher: SIU Press
ISBN: 9780809303496
Size: 71.47 MB
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Volume 1 of “The Early Works of John Dewey, 1882–1898” is entitled “Early Essays andLeibniz’s New Essays Concerning the Human Understanding,1882–1888.” Included here are all Dewey’s earliest writings, from his first published article through his book on Leibniz. The materials in this volume provide a chronological record of Dewey’s early development—beginning with the article he sent to theJournal of Speculative Philosophyin 1881 while he was a high-school teacher in Oil City, Pennsylvania, and closing with his widely-acclaimed work on Leibniz in the Grigg’s Series of German Philosophical Classics, written when he was an Assistant Professor at the University of Michigan. During these years be­tween 1882 and 1888, Dewey’s life course was established: he decided to follow a career in philosophy, completed doctoral studies at Johns Hopkins University, became an Instructor at the University of Michigan, was promoted to Assistant Professor, and accepted a position as Chairman of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Minnesota. With the publication ofPsychology,he became well known among scholars in this country; a series of articles in the British journalMindbrought him prominence in British philosophical circles. His articles were abstracted in theRevue philosophique. None of the articles collected in this volume was reprinted during the author’s lifetime. For the first time, it is now possible for Dewey scholars to study consecutively in one publication all the essays which originally appeared in many periodicals.

Historical Pragmatics Of Controversies

Author: Gerd Fritz
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
ISBN: 9027263884
Size: 64.91 MB
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The book gives an introduction to the new research field of Historical Pragmatics of Controversies and provides seven case studies (from 1609 to 1796) on controversies in the fields of astronomy/astrology, medicine, chemistry, philosophy, and theology. The protagonists of these controversies include both famous authors like Kepler, Hobbes and Leibniz and internationally less known authors like the German theologian A.H. Francke and the chemist F.A.C. Gren. The case studies examine the organizing principles of historical controversies, language use, moves and strategies, topic management and text organisation, and the adherence to communication principles in these controversies. At the same time they analyse the use of different text types and media in the course of controversies, including pamphlets, journal articles, reviews, scientific handbooks and letters. In addition, the case studies demonstrate early modern writers’ resources from disputation practice, dialectic, and rhetoric and show developments of the practice of polemical writing during this period.

Molyneux S Problem

Author: M. Degenaar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0585284245
Size: 23.96 MB
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Suppose that a congenitally blind person has learned to distinguish and name a sphere and a cube by touch alone. Then imagine that this person suddenly recovers the faculty of sight. Will he be able to distinguish both objects by sight and to say which is the sphere and which the cube? This was the question which the Irish politician and scientist William Molyneux posed in 1688 to John Locke. Molyneux's question has intrigued a wide variety of intellectuals for three centuries. Those who have attempted to solve it include Berkeley, Reid, Leibniz, Voltaire, La Mettrie, Condillac, Diderot, Müller, Helmholtz, William James and Gareth Evans. This book is the first comprehensive survey of the history of the discussion about Molyneux's problem. It will be of interest to historians of both philosophy and psychology.

The Routledge Companion To Eighteenth Century Philosophy

Author: Aaron Garrett
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131780791X
Size: 58.26 MB
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The Eighteenth century is one of the most important periods in the history of Western philosophy, witnessing philosophical, scientific, and social and political change on a vast scale. In spite of this, there are few single volume overviews of the philosophy of the period as a whole. The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy is an authoritative survey and assessment of this momentous period, covering major thinkers, topics and movements in Eighteenth century philosophy. Beginning with a substantial introduction by Aaron Garrett, the thirty-five specially commissioned chapters by an outstanding team of international contributors are organised into seven clear parts: Context and Movements Metaphysics and Understanding Mind, Soul, and Perception Morals and Aesthetics Politics and Society Philosophy in relation to the Arts and Sciences Major Figures. Major topics and themes are explored and discussed, ranging from materialism, free will and personal identity; to the emotions, the social contract, aesthetics, and the sciences, including mathematics and biology. The final section examines in more detail three figures central to the period: Hume, Rousseau and Kant. As such The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy is essential reading for all students of the period, both in philosophy and related disciplines such as politics, literature, history and religious studies.

Baumgarten And Kant On Metaphysics

Author: Courtney D. Fugate
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191086452
Size: 47.42 MB
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Baumgarten and Kant on Metaphysics explores the metaphysics of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (17141762) and its decisive influence on Immanuel Kant. For over a century, scholars have recognized the significance of Baumgarten's Metaphysics, both because of its impact on Kant's intellectual development, and because of the way it fundamentally informed the work of generations of German philosophers, including Moses Mendelssohn, Thomas Abbt, Johann Gottfried Herder, Solomon Maimon, Johann August Eberhard, and arguably even Georg Friedrich Hegel. However, Baumgarten's Metaphysics has only recently become available in reliable German and English translations; as such, many scholars have been excluded from the discussion and the significance of Baumgarten's work has remained largely unexplored. Thus with the appearance of these translations, interest in Baumgarten's work has surged. This collection provides an anchor for this emerging discussion by presenting chapters by some of the scholars most responsible for Baumgarten's current reputation, together with some of the best young scholars in this emerging field.

The Downfall Of Cartesianism 1673 1712

Author: R. A. Watson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401029628
Size: 51.92 MB
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Phenomenalism, idealism, spiritualism, and other contemporary philo sophical movements originating in the reflective experience of the cogito witness to the immense influence of Descartes. However, Carte sianism as a complete metaphysical system in the image of that of the master collapsed early in the 18th century. A small school of brilliant Cartesians, almost all expert in the new mechanistic science, flashed like meteors upon the intellectual world of late 17th century France to win well-deserved recognition for Cartesianism. They were accompanied by a scintillating comet, Ma1ebranche, the deviant Cartesian, now remembered as the orthodox Cartesians are not. However, all these bright lights faded upon the philosophical horizon, almost as soon as they appeared. The metaphysical dualism of Des cartes was, as such, neither to be preserved nor reconstructed. There are many reasons why the Cartesian system did not survive the victory over Scholasticism which Descartes, Malebranche, and the others had won. Newtonian physics very soon replaced Cartesian physics. The practical interest and success of the new science which the Cartesians themselves had nurtured drew men down from the lofty realms of metaphysics. On the popular front, Cartesianism was attacked and ridiculed for the view that animals are unthinking machines. In the schools of Paris and elsewhere, there was the general but severe opposition of pedants, which is perhaps of more historical than philosophical interest.

Self And Substance In Leibniz

Author: Marc Elliott Bobro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402025823
Size: 12.12 MB
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There is a close connection in Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s mind between the notions of self and substance. R. W. Meyer, in his classic 1948 text, Leibnitz and the Seventeenth-Century Revolution, writes that “the monad ... is nothing but a 1 représentation (in both senses of the French word) of Leibniz’s personality in metaphysical symbols; and there was, under contemporary circumstances, no need 2 to ‘introduce’ this concept apart from ‘propounding’ it. ” It is not clear what Meyer means here except that from the consideration of his own self, in some way Leibniz comes to his concept of simple substance, or monad. Herbert Carr, in an even earlier work, notes that Leibniz held that “the only real unities in nature are formal, not material. ... [and] [f]or a long time Leibniz was content to call the formal unities or substantial forms he was speaking about, souls. This had the advantage that it referred at once to the fact of experience which supplies the very 3 type of a substantial form, the self or ego. ” Finally, Nicholas Rescher, in his usual forthright manner, states that “[i]n all of Leibniz’s expositions of his philosophy, 4 the human person is the paradigm of a substance.

The Extraterrestrial Life Debate 1750 1900

Author: Michael J. Crowe
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486145018
Size: 62.19 MB
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Detailed, scholarly study examines the ideas that developed between 1750 and 1900 regarding the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life, including those of Kant, Herschel, Voltaire, Lowell, many others. 16 illustrations.