By way of introduction to this fascinating book, let me highlight two of its many contributions. First, it is a good example of something all too rare in sociology: testing competing general theories. Most of us either try to develop or refine theories about how the social world works, and cite convenient data as support, or we select and collect data that will fit some general theoretical position. In the first case, the data playa subor dinate role-bits of evidence for our view of life. In the second, the theory plays a subordinate role-a way to make sense of the social behavior we have observed. McCaffrey's position subsumes these two. He has gathered data on an important social agency, but with an im plicit problem in mind: which of the several theories about the social world he was exposed to in graduate school would do the best job of interpreting the data? Or, we might just as well turn it around. In a graduate department such as Sociology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, there is a lively, never ending debate about the "truth" of competing perspectives on the political and social world. By selecting a data base and remaining alert to the kind of evidence each theory required, McCaffrey circumvented the usual" data for a theory" vs. "a theory for the data" dilemma that most of us live with.
Release on 2013-06-29 | by George Eaton Simpson,J. Milton Yinger
An Analysis of Prejudice and Discrimination
Author: George Eaton Simpson,J. Milton Yinger
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
We need scarcely note that the topic of this book is the stuff of headlines. Around the world, political, economic, educational, military, religious, and social relations of every variety have a racial or ethnic component. One cannot begin to understand the history or contemporary situation of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Great Britain, Lebanon, Mexico, Canada-indeed, almost any land-without careful attention to the influence of cultural and racial divisions. Preparation of this new edition has brought a strong sense of deja vu, with regard both to the persistence of old patterns of discrimination, even if in new guises, and also to the persistence of limited and constraining explanations. We have also found, however, rich new empirical studies, new theoretical perspectives, and greatly expanded activity and analyses from members of minority groups. Although this edition is an extensive revision, with reference both to the data used and the theoretical approaches examined, we have not shifted from our basically analytical perspective. We strongly support efforts to reduce discrimination and prejudice; but these can be successful only if we try to understand where we are and what forces are creating the existing situation. We hope to reduce the tendency to use declarations and condem nations of other persons' actions as substitutes for an investigation of their causes and consequences.
Release on 1997-07-19 | by Charles Levenstein,John Wooding
Old Problems, New Solutions
Author: Charles Levenstein,John Wooding
Pubpsher: Guilford Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
This is an indispensable collection on the crisis of worker health and safety in the United States. This collection offers an all-important lesson for the labor movement: that problems of occupational health and safety are not merely technical problems but rather problems relating to workers' lack of control over the organization of capitalist production.
Release on 2013-11-21 | by Edwin Melendez,Clara Rodriguez,Janis B. Figueroa
Issues and Policies
Author: Edwin Melendez,Clara Rodriguez,Janis B. Figueroa
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Business & Economics
The bright side of the 1980s, or the "Hispanic decade," as it was dubbed early on, may ironically turn out to be the detail and sophistication with which the economic and social reversals affecting most Latinos in this period have been tracked, with a fresh cohort of Latino scholars playing an increasingly prominent role in this endeavor. As this volume conveys, these analyses are steadily probing more deeply into the fine grain of the processes bearing on the social conditions of U. S. Latinos and particularly into the diversity of the experiences of the several Latino-origin nationalities until recently generally treated in the aggre gate as "Hispanics. " Though still fragmented and tentative in perspective, as are the disciplines on which they draw and the research apparatus on which they rest, the quest among these new voices for a unifying perspective also comes across in this collection of essays. There is manifestly more under way here than a simple demand for inclusion of neglected instances on the margin of supposedly well understood larger or "mainstream" dynamics. The 1990s open with a more confident assertion of the centrality of the Latino presence and Latino actors in the overarching transformations reshaping U. S. society, and especially in the playing out of these restructurings in the regions and cities of Latino concentra tion.
Release on 2013-06-29 | by A. Michael Huberman,Matthew B. Miles
How School Improvement Works
Author: A. Michael Huberman,Matthew B. Miles
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
School improvement, like motherhood, has many advocates. Everyone is for it, without having to campaign actively on its behalf. And just as the 100% of people who have had mothers think they know how mothering could be done better, so the (nearly) 100% of people who have been pupils in schools, or have even taught in or managed them, think they know how schools can be im proved. More precisely, they are sure that schools ought to be improved. The trouble is that they propose a staggering, conflicting range of methods of improving the schools, from ;'back to the woodshed" to teacher merit pay, a stiffer curriculum, a stronger tax base, reorganization, a more humane climate, "teacher-proof" innovations, community involvement-the list is nearly end less. Furthermore, the issues are not merely technical, but normative and po litical. The term improvement is itself problematic. One person's version of improvement is another's version of wastefulness or even of worsening the schools. Furthermore, the versions that win out in any particular school are not Improvement sometimes turns out to be merely a necessarily technically "best. " code word for the directives that administrators have successfully put into place, or for the agreements that teachers have lobbied into being. How much do we really know about school improvement? The available research literature is quite substantial, but not as helpful as it might be.
Revised and expanded, this edition provides comprehensive coverage of occupational health and safety. A new CD-ROM version is available which provides the benefits of computer-assisted search capabilities.
Your one-stop review for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE), Mosby's Comprehensive Review of Dental Hygiene, 7th Edition is the most trusted review and study tool on the market. A total of 2,500 review questions including four online timed practice exams -- all with answers and rationales for remediation -- make this book stand out as a student favorite. Already known for its in-depth coverage, an easy-to-use outline format, and expert authorship, this review parallels the NBDHE with case studies, the "testlet" format for community health and research content, an emphasis on computer-based testing, and coverage of dynamic areas such as infection control and local anesthesia administration. Expert author Michele Darby provides the NBDHE review tool you cannot afford to be without! A comprehensive review includes all the necessary content for the NBDHE, with 2,500 review questions including four simulated exams. A logical organization covers the three main areas of the NBDHE: (1) the scientific basis for dental hygiene practice, (2) the provision of clinical dental hygiene services, and (3) community health and research principles. NBDHE-style review questions offer practice and self-assessment relating to key content. A new 350-question examination complete with Components A and B mimics the format of the NBDHE and is included in the back of the book and on the companion Evolve website; it provides answers, rationales, and a timer function. Three additional timed simulated practice examinations are provided on the companion website for additional test-taking experience. Case-based questions prepare you for the case studies and scenarios emphasized on the NBDHE. An outline format allows for easy review and study. Illustrations, diagrams, clinical photographs, and radiographs help in recognizing suspected pathologic processes and interpreting radiographs. Tables and boxes summarize concepts and procedures. Unique! Website tables in each chapter provide a quick reference to key sites for further research and study. Expert authors are leading educators, researchers, and practitioners, each of whom has an in-depth knowledge of what it takes to succeed on the NBDHE. 1,450 NEW practice questions are added to this edition for a more complete review. Updated content reflects changes and advances in areas such as infection control, pharmacology, digital imaging, and local anesthesia administration. Expanded case studies promote critical thinking and provide practice with the complex cases that make up Component B of the examination. NEW full-color photographs, illustrations, and radiographs accurately represent dental conditions. Labeling and identification exercises are included, with electronic flashcards for added vocabulary practice.