Reforming China's Healthcare System

Reforming China's Healthcare System

Although China’s new healthcare reform, launched in 2009, has achieved remarkable results in improving China’s medical and healthcare system, it is recognised that there is still room for further improvement. This is especially important as China’s population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases and environment-related health risks worsen. This book reports on a major international research project which examined health trends, modes of health promotion, health finance systems, medical and healthcare innovations and environment-related health risks in China. For each of these key areas, the book considers the current situation in China and likely future trends, explores best practice from a wide range of foreign countries and puts forward proposals for improvements. Overall, the book provides a major assessment of China’s medical and healthcare system and how it should be reformed.

Constructing a Social Welfare System for All in China

Constructing a Social Welfare System for All in China

This book sets out the general objectives, principles and framework of a proposed new social welfare system for China. It provides a comprehensive overview of China’s current welfare services, including retirement pensions, education, health, employment, housing and social security payments, and goes on to cost the proposed new social welfare system and assess the government’s capacity for implementing it.

China's Development Challenges

Economic Vulnerability and Public Sector Reform

China's Development Challenges

This book argues that a major potential source of social tension in transition and developing countries is not poverty as such, but vulnerability: that is, the risk of becoming poor. It demonstrates how in China many of the recent reforms to the public sector, such as decentralisation from central to local government, especially fiscal decentralisation; the reduction in public services provided by the state; the increasing practice of local government of charging fees for basic services which were previously free; de-collectivisation of the rural commune system and market sector experimentation in Economic Processing Zones have made many households extremely vulnerable to poverty. Having to find funds to pay for health and education leaves the households exposed should macro-economic fluctuations related to factors – such as trade, resource imports, and financial volatility – have an adverse impact on the Chinese economy overall. The book argues that to become less vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks China would need to shift from an export-oriented development strategy to a domestic consumer-demand driven development strategy, and this would need to be supported by public sector reforms: strengthening of public service provisions in the health and the education sectors as well as expanding social security programs. The book discusses these problems, relates them to the economic literature and outlines the likely consequences.

Gender, China and the World Trade Organization

Essays from Feminist Economics

Gender, China and the World Trade Organization

China’s joining the World Trade Organization at the end of 2001 signifies a milestone in the country’s global integration after two decades of economic reforms that have fundamentally transformed the economic organization of China. This collection seeks to identify the gendered implications within China of the country’s transition from socialism to a market economy and its opening up to international trade and investment. The changes have created greater wealth for some, while at the same time, serious gender, class, ethnic, and regional disparities have also emerged. Drawing from historical, analytical, and policy-oriented work, the essays in this collection explore women’s well-being relative to men’s in rural and urban China by looking at land rights, labor-market status and labor rights, household decision-making, health, the representation of women in advertising and beauty pageants. This book was previously published as a special issue of the journal, Feminist Economics, the official journal of the International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE). All contributions have been subjected to the journal's rigorous peer review process and comply with the journal's editorial policies, as overseen by the editor, Diana Strassmann, and the journal's editorial team, including the associate editors, the editorial board, numerous volunteer reviewers, and the journal's in-house editorial staff and freelance style editors. The special issue and book have been made possible by the generous financial support of Rice University and the Ford Foundation-Beijing.

The Everyday Impact of Economic Reform in China

Management Change, Enterprise Performance and Daily Life

The Everyday Impact of Economic Reform in China

During the past 30 years, China has undergone extensive economic reform, replacing the government’s administration of enterprises with increasing levels of market-oriented enterprise autonomy. At the heart of the reform are changes in the employment relationship, where state control has been superceded by market relationships. These reforms have had far-reaching implications for many aspects of everyday life in Chinese society. This book appraises the impact of the economic reforms on the employment relationship and, in turn, examines the effects on individual workers and their families, including salaries, working conditions and satisfaction, job security and disparities based on location, gender, age, skill, position and migrant status. In particular, it focuses on how changes in the employment relationship have affected the livelihood strategies of households. It explores the changing human resource management practices and employment relations in different types of enterprises: including State-Owned Enterprises, Foreign-Owned Enterprises and Domestic Private Enterprises; throughout different industries, focusing especially on textiles, clothing and footwear and the electronics industry; and in different regions and cities within China (Beijing, Haerbin, Lanzhou, Hangzhou, Wuhan and Kunming). Overall, this book provides a detailed account of the everyday implications of economic reform for individuals and families in China.

The Chinese State's Retreat from Health

Policy and the Politics of Retrenchment

The Chinese State's Retreat from Health

Over the post-Mao period, the Chinese state has radically cut back its role in funding health services and insuring its citizens against the costs of ill health. Using an analytical framework drawn from studies of state retrenchment in industrialized democracies and in post-communist Eastern Europe, Jane Duckett argues that the state’s retreat from health in China was not a simple consequence of economic policies and market reform. Just as important were the influences of health policies, reform era political institutions, communist party ideology, and bureaucratic stakeholders. Through her analysis, Duckett maintains that by studying retrenchment in China, the world’s most populous nation and now a major global economic power, we can better understand international transformations in the role of the state, and the politics that shape that role. The Chinese State’s Retreat from Health both extends research on retrenchment politics to a major authoritarian state and contributes to piecing together understanding of the Chinese state’s changing role across the economy and other social policies, including housing and education. It will be of interest to students and scholars of Chinese politics, social policy and the Chinese health care system, as well as to those with a comparative interest in health, welfare states and the politics of retrenchment. Jane Duckett is Professor of Chinese and Comparative Politics at the University of Glasgow, UK.

Health Care Reform and Globalisation

The US, China and Europe in Comparative Perspective

Health Care Reform and Globalisation

In the post-Cold War, post financial crisis era, health care is an issue of critical political, personal and economic concern. In the US, plans to address a troubled health care model were met by vocal opposition. In the UK and post-communist Europe, attempts to introduce aspects of that model have resulted in controversy and violent protests, while China and Russia have recently backpedalled on marketising reforms. This innovative book provides a timely analysis addressing the many dimensions of radical health care change. Bringing together three major geopolitical regions with strikingly different recent histories, this international cast of contributors, examines reform in US, China and Europe within a single study frame. They look at the processes that have been involved when countries with such diverse starting points try to move towards a globally shared health care framework. An underlying theme running through the chapters is access to care, and how it is shaped by moral economies, by what can be said and known, and by political and economic power. Health Care Reform and Globalisation confronts the interpretations and experiences of patients, professionals, and politicians of health care transformation in practice. It will be of interest to scholars from a range of diverse disciplinary backgrounds, including public health, anthropology, area studies, sociology, politics, social policy, geography and economics.

New Mentalities of Government in China

New Mentalities of Government in China

China continues to transform apace, flowing from the forces of deregulation, privatization and globalization unleashed by economic reforms which began in late 1978. The dramatic scope of economic change in China is often counterposed to the apparent lack of political change as demonstrated by continued Chinese Communist Party (CCP) rule. However, the ongoing dominance of the CCP belies the fact that much has also changed in relation to practices of government, including how authorities and citizens interact in the management of daily life. New Mentalities of Government in China examines how the privatization and professionalization of ‘public’ service provision is transforming the nature of government and everyday life in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The book addresses key theoretical questions on the nature of government in China and documents the emergence of a range of ‘new mentalities of government’ in China. Its chapters focus on areas such as clinical trials, conceptualizing government, consumer activity, elite philanthropy, lifestyle and beauty advice, public health, social work, volunteering; and urban and rural planning. Offering a topical examination of shifting modes of governance in contemporary China, this book will appeal to scholars in the fields of anthropology, history, politics and sociology.

Governing Health in Contemporary China

Governing Health in Contemporary China

The lack of significant improvement in people’s health status and other mounting health challenges in China raise a puzzling question about the country’s internal transition: why did the reform-induced dynamics produce an economic miracle, but fail to reproduce the success Mao had achieved in the health sector? This book examines the political and policy dynamics of health governance in post-Mao China. It explores the political-institutional roots of the public health and health care challenges and the evolution of the leaders’ policy response in contemporary China. It argues that reform-induced institutional dynamics, when interacting with Maoist health policy structure in an authoritarian setting, have not only contributed to the rising health challenges in contemporary China, but also shaped the patterns and outcomes of China’s health system transition. The study of China’s health governance will further our understanding of the evolving political system in China and the complexities of China’s rise. As the world economy and international security are increasingly vulnerable to major disease outbreaks in China, it also sheds critical light on China’s role in global health governance.

China's Economic Reform

A Study with Documents

China's Economic Reform

This book presents a collection and analysis of original policy documents, newly translated into English, from a key period of Chinese development, providing both a current and a retrospective analysis of China's economic reform efforts. Topics dealt with include the evolution of Chinese economic strategy; economic planning and the spread of market mechanisms; technology transfer in industry; evolution of an agricultural system; the development of population policy; and foreign economic relations. The collection will be of great interest not only to scholars and students of Chinese studies, but also to professionals and social scientists concerned with China but unable to read source documents in Chinese.