Relativity

Author: Albert Einstein
Publisher: Samaira Book Publishers
ISBN: 8193540174
Size: 26.81 MB
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After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was 'to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics.' The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. The theory of relativity enriched physics and astronomy during the 20th century.

Relativity

Author: John Lighton Synge
Publisher: Prabhat Prakashan
ISBN:
Size: 21.24 MB
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Cosmological Relativity

Author: Moshe Carmeli
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812700757
Size: 44.50 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"In this chapter cosmological special relativity is extended to five dimensions by adding time to the three spatial dimensions and the velocity of the Hubble expansion. As a consequence of this extension, equations of electrodynamics are considered through the extended skew-symmetric tensor, in which a new field is included along with the electric and magnetic fields. This new field is due to the Higgs interaction associated with the expansion of the Universe. It is unified with the electromagnetic interaction in the frame of cosmology. The field equations are developed in five dimensions. In addition to the well-known Maxwell equations new equations that describe the mix-up of different fields are obtained."--Publisher's website.

Relativity

Author: Albert Einstein
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 34.34 MB
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Relativity The Special And General Theory Sidelights On Relativity

Author: Albert Einstein
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781979060806
Size: 67.29 MB
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Relativity - The Special and General Theory/ Sidelights on Relativity is a compilation of two classic Albert Einstein physics papers. Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was introduced in Einstein's 1905 paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (for the contributions of many other physicists see History of special relativity). Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics: The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another (principle of relativity). The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the light source. The resultant theory copes with experiment better than classical mechanics. For instance, postulate 2 explains the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Moreover, the theory has many surprising and counterintuitive consequences. Some of these are: Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion. Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer's "stationary" clock. Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer. Maximum speed is finite: No physical object, message or field line can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum. The effect of Gravity can only travel through space at the speed of light, not faster or instantaneously. Mass-energy equivalence: E = mc2, energy and mass are equivalent and transmutable. Relativistic mass, idea used by some researchers. The defining feature of special relativity is the replacement of the Galilean transformations of classical mechanics by the Lorentz transformations. General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Einstein in the years 1907-1915. The development of general relativity began with the equivalence principle, under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field (for example, when standing on the surface of the Earth) are physically identical. The upshot of this is that free fall is inertial motion: an object in free fall is falling because that is how objects move when there is no force being exerted on them, instead of this being due to the force of gravity as is the case in classical mechanics. This is incompatible with classical mechanics and special relativity because in those theories inertially moving objects cannot accelerate with respect to each other, but objects in free fall do so. To resolve this difficulty Einstein first proposed that spacetime is curved. In 1915, he devised the Einstein field equations which relate the curvature of spacetime with the mass, energy, and any momentum within it. Some of the consequences of general relativity are: Clocks run slower in deeper gravitational wells. This is called gravitational time dilation. Orbits precess in a way unexpected in Newton's theory of gravity. (This has been observed in the orbit of Mercury and in binary pulsars). Rays of light bend in the presence of a gravitational field. Rotating masses "drag along" the spacetime around them; a phenomenon termed "frame-dragging." The universe is expanding, and the far parts of it are moving away from us faster than the speed of light. Technically, general relativity is a theory of gravitation whose defining feature is its use of the Einstein field equations. The solutions of the field equations are metric tensors which define the topology of the spacetime and how objects move inertially.

Einstein S Theories Of Relativity

Author: Alan Morton
Publisher: Evans Brothers
ISBN: 0237536293
Size: 30.80 MB
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Einstein's Theories of Relativity looks at the life and times of the man himself and the beliefs about the laws of physics prior to his theories. It explains what relativity is, & how we can understand it in relation to our everyday lives, before investigating in detail the theories of Special and General Relativity. The book goes on to show how these amazing ideas opened up a whole new understanding of universal forces, from the power in the nucleus of an atom to the way massive bodies in space behave.

Einstein S Pathway To The Special Theory Of Relativity

Author: Galina Weinstein
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443878898
Size: 68.12 MB
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This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein’s journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper, and, according to reports, seeing to it that the small sheets of paper on which he was writing would vanish into his desk-drawer as soon as he heard footsteps approaching his door. He probably discarded many pieces of papers and calculations and flung them in the waste paper basket in the Patent Office. The end result was that Einstein published nothing regarding the special theory of relativity prior to 1905. For many years before 1905, he had been intensely concerned with the topic; in fact, he was busily working on the problem for seven or eight years prior to 1905. Unfortunately, there are no surviving notebooks and manuscripts, no notes and papers or other primary sources from this critical period to provide any information about the crucial steps that led Einstein to his great discovery. In May 1905, Henri Poincaré sent three letters to Hendrik Lorentz at the same time that Einstein wrote his famous May 1905 letter to Conrad Habicht, promising him four works, of which the fourth one, Relativity, was a rough draft at that point. In the May 1905 letters to Lorentz, Poincaré presented the basic equations of his 1905 “Dynamics of the Electron”, meaning that, at this point, Poincaré and Einstein both had drafts of papers relating to the principle of relativity. The book discusses Einstein’s and Poincaré’s creativity and the process by which their ideas developed. The book also explores the misunderstandings and paradoxes apparent in the theory of relativity, and unravels the subtleties and creativity of Einstein.

The Principle Of Relativity

Author: Albert Einstein
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486318400
Size: 67.50 MB
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Eleven papers that forged the general and special theories of relativity include seven papers by Einstein, two by Lorentz, and one each by Minkowski and Weyl. 1923 edition.