Static Mixers for Coagulation and Disinfection

Static Mixers for Coagulation and Disinfection

Static mixers are an attractive alternative for the mixing of chemicals in water treatment plants. The attraction comes from the fact that static mixers do not require an external input of energy and do not have moving parts. Static mixers consist of mixing elements fixed on the inside of a pipe of channel. The elements do not move. Chemicals, added just upstream of the mixers, mix with the bulk fluid because of the complex, three-dimensional fluid motion generated by the elements. The goal of this project is to explore the use of static mixers in two of the key processes in drinking water treatment: for the mixing of coagulants for destabilization and the mixing of disinfectants for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in disinfection. The role of mixing in both of these processes is not well understood. But for each process experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that, at least in some circumstances, the mixing environment provided when chemicals are introduced into the flow will affect the resulting destabilization or inactivation.

Static

Government Liars, Media Cheerleaders, and the People Who Fight Back

Static

Torture. Kidnapping. Bogus wars. Illegal wiretapping. Propaganda. Spies in the newsrooms. Oil profiteers. Soldiers who won't fight. Mothers of fallen soldiers Who will. In Static, the bestselling brother-sister team of Amy Goodman, host of Democracy Now!, and investigative journalist David Goodman takes on government liars, corporate profiteers, and the media that have acted as their cheerleaders. The authors cut through the official static to show the truth about war, torture, and government control of the media. Static breaks the sound barrier to present the voices of dissidents, activists, and others who are often frozen out of official debate. Read Static. Become informed. Fight back. Defend democracy.

Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography

Theory and Practice

Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography

The only reference to provide both current and thorough coverage of this important analytical technique Static headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) is an indispensable technique for analyzing volatile organic compounds, enabling the analyst to assay a variety of sample matrices while avoiding the costly and time-consuming preparation involved with traditional GC. Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography: Theory and Practice has long been the only reference to provide in-depth coverage of this method of analysis. The Second Edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the most recent developments and practices, and also includes coverage of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the purge-and-trap technique. Chapters cover: * Principles of static and dynamic headspace analysis, including the evolution of HS-GC methods and regulatory methods using static HS-GC * Basic theory of headspace analysis-physicochemical relationships, sensitivity, and the principles of multiple headspace extraction * HS-GC techniques-vials, cleaning, caps, sample volume, enrichment, and cryogenic techniques * Sample handling * Cryogenic HS-GC * Method development in HS-GC * Nonequilibrium static headspace analysis * Determination of physicochemical functions such as vapor pressures, activity coefficients, and more Comprehensive and focused, Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography, Second Edition provides an excellent resource to help the reader achieve optimal chromatographic results. Practical examples with original data help readers to master determinations in a wide variety of areas, such as forensic, environmental, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications.

Improvement of the Ozonation Process Through the Use of Static Mixers

Improvement of the Ozonation Process Through the Use of Static Mixers

Among the known disinfectants, ozone has been demonstrated to be very effective in inactivating protozoans. Current and proposed regulations impose additional treatment requirements for Cryptosporidium parvum . These regulatory trends tend to place more stringent performance demands on disinfection systems and have therefore increased the need for improvements in the design. The static mixer offers one alternative method for improving the efficiency of the dissolution of ozone and optimizing its use in the disinfection process. The overall objective of this research was to quantify the potential benefits of ozone application through the use of static mixers in terms of increased transfer efficiency, disinfection capacity, and enhanced chemical reactions at laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale systems. Specific goals were to identify and quantify the effect of several water quality parameters and environmental/engineered factors on the disinfection capacity of the ozone-static mixer system and assess bromate formation under optimum conditions for microbial inactivation.The results showed that a static mixer provided (1) rapid and efficient dissolution of gaseous ozone and (2) generation of a homogeneous dissolved ozone solution. These conditions led to higher CTs resulting in enhanced inactivation as compared to fine bubble diffusion contactors. It was found that a static mixer, when integrated with a well-designed, continuous-plug flow ozone contactor, could achieve excellent and predictable Cryptosporidium parvum inactivation. In such systems, applying low ozone doses (GBP 0.5 mg O3/mg C) combined with a pH of GBP 7.0 can provide adequate microbial inactivation while keeping bromate formation below the current MCL (10 ppb. Originally published by AwwaRF for its subscribers in 2003 This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below

Optimal Control Theory and Static Optimization in Economics

Optimal Control Theory and Static Optimization in Economics

Optimal control theory is a technique being used increasingly by academic economists to study problems involving optimal decisions in a multi-period framework. This book is designed to make the difficult subject of optimal control theory easily accessible to economists while at the same time maintaining rigor. Economic intuition is emphasized, examples and problem sets covering a wide range of applications in economics are provided, theorems are clearly stated and their proofs are carefully explained. The development of the text is gradual and fully integrated, beginning with the simple formulations and progressing to advanced topics. Optimal control theory is introduced directly, without recourse to the calculus of variations, and the connection with the latter and with dynamic programming is explained in a separate chapter. Also, the book draws the parallel between optimal control theory and static optimization. No previous knowledge of differential equations is required.

Static

Static

Edward Scott continues to impress as a poet. Not missing a line, he picks up where he left off, a new book. His upgraded self-craft-style writing hasn't lightened up. Scott poetry just keeps rolling along. His writing isn't a form or style, certainly, nothing anyone has ever seen, but more or less an open conscience with an ego that demands print. In his latest book, STATIC, the poet unleashes a new collection of poems that embodies an intangible network of art in its own spectrum based on true authenticity, Scott's writing- a welcomed model to poetry.

Static Analysis

17th International Symposium, SAS 2010, Perpignan, France, September 14-16, 2010, Proceedings

Static Analysis

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2010, held in Perpignan, France in September 2010. The conference was co-located with 3 affiliated workshops: NSAD 2010 (Workshop on Numerical and Symbolic Abstract Domains), SASB 2010 (Workshop on Static Analysis and Systems Biology) and TAPAS 2010 (Tools for Automatic Program Analysis). The 22 revised full papers presented together with 4 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including abstract domains, bug detection, data flow analysis, logic programming, systems analysis, type inference, cache analysis, flow analysis, verification, abstract testing, compiler optimization and program verification.

Static Analysis

13th International Symposium, SAS 2006, Seoul, Korea, August 29-31, 2006, Proceedings

Static Analysis

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2006. The book presents 23 revised full papers together with the abstracts of 3 invited talks. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including program and systems verification, shape analysis and logic, termination analysis, bug detection, compiler optimization, software maintenance, security and safety, abstract interpretation and algorithms, abstract domain and data structures and more.

Static Analysis

16th International Symposium, SAS 2009, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 9-11, 2009, Proceedings

Static Analysis

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2009, held in Los Angeles, CA, USA in August 2009 - co-located with LICS 2009, the 24th IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science. The 21 revised full papers presented together with two invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 52 submissions. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including abstract domains, abstract interpretation, abstract testing, compiler optimizations, control flow analysis, data flow analysis, model checking, program specialization, security analysis, theoretical analysis frameworks, type based analysis, and verification systems.

Testing Static Random Access Memories

Defects, Fault Models and Test Patterns

Testing Static Random Access Memories

Embedded memories are one of the fastest growing segments oftoday's new technology market. According to the 2001 InternationalTechnology Roadmap for Semiconductors, embedded memories will continueto dominate the increasing system on chip (SoC) content in the nextseveral years, approaching 94% of the SoC area in about 10 years.Furthermore, the shrinking size of manufacturing structures makesmemories more sensitive to defects. Consequently, the memory yieldwill have a dramatic impact on the overall Defect-per-million level, hence on the overall SoC yield. Meeting a high memory yield requiresunderstanding memory designs, modeling their faulty behaviors, designing adequate tests and diagnosis algorithms as well as efficientself-test and repair schemes."Testing Static Random Access Memories" covers testing of one ofthe important semiconductor memories types; it address testing ofstatic random access memories (SRAMs), both single-port andmulti-port. It contributes to the technical acknowledge needed bythose involved in memory testing, engineers and researchers. The bookbegins with outlining the most popular SRAMs architectures. Then, thedescription of realistic fault models, based on defect injection andSPICE simulation, are introduced. Thereafter, high quality and lowcost test patterns, as well as test strategies for single-port, two-port and any p-port SRAMs are presented, together with somepreliminary test results showing the importance of the new tests inreducing DPM level. The impact of the port restrictions (e.g., read-only ports) on the fault models, tests, and test strategies isalso discussed.Features: