The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. In the 1960s most computers filled an entire room, but the spacecraft’s computer was required to be compact and low power. Although people today find it difficult to accept that it was possible to control a spacecraft using such a ‘primitive’ computer, it nevertheless had capabilities that are advanced even by today’s standards. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. As a comprehensive account, it will span the disciplines of computer science, electrical and aerospace engineering. However, it will also be accessible to the ‘space enthusiast’. In short, the intention is for this to be the definitive account of the Apollo guidance computer. Frank O’Brien’s interest in the Apollo program began as a serious amateur historian. About 12 years ago, he began performing research and writing essays for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, and the Apollo Flight Journal. Much of this work centered on his primary interests, the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) and the Lunar Module. These Journals are generally considered the canonical online reference on the flights to the Moon. He was then asked to assist the curatorial staff in the creation of the Cradle of Aviation Museum, on Long Island, New York, where he helped prepare the Lunar Module simulator, a LM procedure trainer and an Apollo space suit for display. He regularly lectures on the Apollo computer and related topics to diverse groups, from NASA's computer engineering conferences, the IEEE/ACM, computer festivals and university student groups.
Luna 2, launched by the USSR in 1959, was the first spacecraft from Earth to land on the moon. That first voyage was followed by increasingly capable lunar exploration spacecraft from Russia and the United States. A total of 36 successful lunar exploration missions were conducted from 1959 to the last Apollo manned exploration in 1972 and the final travels of the Lunokhod lunar rover in 1973. Of all the missions, that of Apollo 17 was the pinnacle of manned space exploration. Apollo 17 astronauts traveled 21 miles on the lunar surface in a dune buggy-type vehicle, stopping frequently to explore and gather samples. The spacecraft that enabled lunar exploration were ingenious, and reflected the best efforts of talented people working with the technology of the day. This book showcases the engineering involved in those incredible machines. The spacecraft covered, and their missions, are listed below. From the United States: • Ranger – Photography en route to lunar impact • Lunar Orbiter – Photography of front and back side of moon • Surveyor – Soft landing, photography, and soil analysis • Apollo – Manned exploration. Lunar Rover expanded range From the USSR: • Luna 2 – Photography en route to lunar impact • Luna 3 – Photography of back side of moon on flyby • Luna 9 and 13 – Soft landing, photography, and soil analysis • Luna 10, 11, 12, 14 – Photography from lunar orbit • Luna 16, 20, 24 – Soft landing, return of soil sample to Earth • Lunokhod-1, -2 – Lunar roving vehicle driven from Earth • L1 – Planned manned lunar flyby but only flew unmanned • L3 – Planned manned lunar landing but never flew to moon To tell the story of these spacecraft, Tom Lund draws on over 40 years’ work on aircraft and spacecraft systems. He was technical lead for the landing radars for the Surveyor and Apollo spacecraft, and his practical experience is augmented by master’s degrees in electrical engineering, physics, and business administration.
Release on 2014-07-08 | by Malcolm Macdonald,Viorel Badescu
Author: Malcolm Macdonald,Viorel Badescu
Category: Technology & Engineering
This comprehensive handbook provides an overview of space technology and a holistic understanding of the system-of-systems that is a modern spacecraft. With a foreword by Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, and contributions from globally leading agency experts from NASA, ESA, JAXA, and CNES, as well as European and North American academics and industrialists, this handbook, as well as giving an interdisciplinary overview, offers, through individual self-contained chapters, more detailed understanding of specific fields, ranging through: · Launch systems, structures, power, thermal, communications, propulsion, and software, to · entry, descent and landing, ground segment, robotics, and data systems, to · technology management, legal and regulatory issues, and project management. This handbook is an equally invaluable asset to those on a career path towards the space industry as it is to those already within the industry.
Release on 2017-11-28 | by Mark Skilton,Felix Hovsepian
Responding to the Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Business
Author: Mark Skilton,Felix Hovsepian
Category: Business & Economics
This book helps decision makers grasp the importance, and applicability to business, of the new technologies and extended connectivity of systems that underlie what is becoming known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution: technologies and systems such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, 3D printing, the internet of things, virtual and augmented reality, big data and mobile networks. The WEF, OECD and UN all agree that humanity is on the cusp of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. As intelligent systems become integrated into every aspect of our lives this revolution will induce cultural and societal change of a magnitude hitherto unforeseen. These technologies challenge the values, customer experience and business propositions that have been the mainstay of almost every business and organization in existence. By redefining and encapsulating new value structures with emerging intelligent technologies, new innovative models are being created, and brought to market. Understanding the potential and impact of these changes will be a fundamental leadership requirement over the coming years. Skilton and Hovsepian provide decision makers with practical, independent and authoritative guidance to help them prepare for the changes we are all likely to witness due to the rapid convergence of technological advances. In short, bite-sized, nuggets, with frameworks supported by a deep set of practical and up-to-the-minute case studies, they shine light on the new business models and enterprise architectures emerging as businesses seek to build strategies to thrive within this brave new world.
Stung by the pioneering space successes of the Soviet Union - in particular, Gagarin being the first man in space, the United States gathered the best of its engineers and set itself the goal of reaching the Moon within a decade. In an expanding 2nd edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, David Woods tells the exciting story of how the resulting Apollo flights were conducted by following a virtual flight to the Moon and its exploration of the surface. From launch to splashdown, he hitches a ride in the incredible spaceships that took men to another world, exploring each step of the journey and detailing the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. While describing the tremendous technological accomplishment involved, he adds the human dimension by calling on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. He provides a wealth of fascinating and accessible material: the role of the powerful Saturn V, the reasoning behind trajectories, the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health between two worlds, the exploration of the lunar surface and the sheer daring involved in traveling to the Moon and the mid-twentieth century. Given the tremendous success of the original edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, the second edition will have a new chapter on surface activities, inspired by reader's comment on Amazon.com. There will also be additional detail in the existing chapters to incorporate all the feedback from the original edition, and will include larger illustrations.
Explorationen visualisierter und kollaborativer Wissensräume
Author: Ronald Maier,Theo Hug
Pubpsher: BoD – Books on Demand
Der vorliegende Band befasst sich mit Dynamiken und Transformationsprozessen an den Schnittstellen medialer, sozialer und organisationaler Entwicklungen. Die Beitr ge zielen auf die Erkundung inter- und transdisziplin rer Diskursfelder. Sie thematisieren kontempor re und zukunftsweisende Formen der Visualisierung und kollaborativen Nutzung von Wissensr umen.