The Blood Telegram

Author: Gary J. Bass
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0385350473
Size: 37.35 MB
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A riveting history—the first full account—of the involvement of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger in the 1971 atrocities in Bangladesh that led to war between India and Pakistan, shaped the fate of Asia, and left in their wake a host of major strategic consequences for the world today. Giving an astonishing inside view of how the White House really works in a crisis, The Blood Telegram is an unprecedented chronicle of a pivotal but little-known chapter of the Cold War. Gary J. Bass shows how Nixon and Kissinger supported Pakistan’s military dictatorship as it brutally quashed the results of a historic free election. The Pakistani army launched a crackdown on what was then East Pakistan (today an independent Bangladesh), killing hundreds of thousands of people and sending ten million refugees fleeing to India—one of the worst humanitarian crises of the twentieth century. Nixon and Kissinger, unswayed by detailed warnings of genocide from American diplomats witnessing the bloodshed, stood behind Pakistan’s military rulers. Driven not just by Cold War realpolitik but by a bitter personal dislike of India and its leader Indira Gandhi, Nixon and Kissinger actively helped the Pakistani government even as it careened toward a devastating war against India. They silenced American officials who dared to speak up, secretly encouraged China to mass troops on the Indian border, and illegally supplied weapons to the Pakistani military—an overlooked scandal that presages Watergate. Drawing on previously unheard White House tapes, recently declassified documents, and extensive interviews with White House staffers and Indian military leaders, The Blood Telegram tells this thrilling, shadowy story in full. Bringing us into the drama of a crisis exploding into war, Bass follows reporters, consuls, and guerrilla warriors on the ground—from the desperate refugee camps to the most secretive conversations in the Oval Office. Bass makes clear how the United States’ embrace of the military dictatorship in Islamabad would mold Asia’s destiny for decades, and confronts for the first time Nixon and Kissinger’s hidden role in a tragedy that was far bloodier than Bosnia. This is a revelatory, compulsively readable work of politics, personalities, military confrontation, and Cold War brinksmanship.

Genocide

Author: Adam Jones
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317533852
Size: 39.72 MB
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Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction is the most wide-ranging textbook on genocide yet published. The book is designed as a text for upper-undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a primer for non-specialists and general readers interested in learning about one of humanity’s enduring blights. Fully updated to reflect the latest thinking in this rapidly developing field, this unique book: Provides an introduction to genocide as both a historical phenomenon and an analytical-legal concept, including the concept of genocidal intent, and the dynamism and contingency of genocidal processes. Discusses the role of state-building, imperialism, war, and social revolution in fuelling genocide. Supplies a wide range of full-length case studies of genocides worldwide, each with a supplementary study. Explores perspectives on genocide from the social sciences, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science/international relations, and gender studies. Considers "The Future of Genocide," with attention to historical memory and genocide denial; initiatives for truth, justice, and redress; and strategies of intervention and prevention. Highlights of the new edition include: Nigeria/Biafra as a "contested case" of genocide Extensive new material on the Kurds, Islamic State/ISIS, and the civil wars/genocide in Iraq and Syria. Conflict and atrocities in the world’s newest state, South Sudan. The role, activities, and constraints of the United Nations Office of Genocide Prevention. Many new testimonies from genocide victims, survivors, witnesses—and perpetrators. Dozens of new images, including a special photographic essay. Written in clear and lively prose with over 240 illustrations and maps, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction remains the indispensable text for new generations of genocide study and scholarship. An accompanying website (www.genocidetext.net) features a broad selection of supplementary materials, teaching aids, and Internet resources.

Nixon S Gamble

Author: Ray Locker
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1493019457
Size: 67.56 MB
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After being sworn in as president, Richard Nixon told the assembled crowd that “government will listen. ... Those who have been left out, we will try to bring in.” But that same day, he obliterated those pledges of greater citizen control of government by signing National Security Decision Memorandum 2, a document that made sweeping changes to the national security power structure. Nixon’s signature erased the influence that the departments of State and Defense, as well as the CIA, had over Vietnam and the course of the Cold War. The new structure put Nixon at the center, surrounded by loyal aides and a new national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, who coordinated policy through the National Security Council under Nixon’s command. Using years of research and revelations from newly released documents, USA Today reporter Ray Locker upends much of the conventional wisdom about the Nixon administration and its impact and shows how the creation of this secret, unprecedented, extra-constitutional government undermined U.S. policy and values. In doing so, Nixon sowed the seeds of his own destruction by creating a climate of secrecy, paranoia, and reprisal that still affects Washington today.

The Rise And Decline Of The American Century

Author: William O. Walker III
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501726145
Size: 60.77 MB
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In 1941 the magazine publishing titan Henry R. Luce urged the nation’s leaders to create an American Century. But in the post-World-War-II era proponents of the American Century faced a daunting task. Even so, Luce had articulated an animating idea that, as William O. Walker III skillfully shows in The Rise and Decline of the American Century, would guide United States foreign policy through the years of hot and cold war. The American Century was, Walker argues, the counter-balance to defensive war during World War II and the containment of communism during the Cold War. American policymakers pursued an aggressive agenda to extend U.S. influence around the globe through control of economic markets, reliance on nation-building, and, where necessary, provision of arms to allied forces. This positive program for the expansion of American power, Walker deftly demonstrates, came in for widespread criticism by the late 1950s. A changing world, epitomized by the nonaligned movement, challenged U.S. leadership and denigrated the market democracy at the heart of the ideal of the American Century. Walker analyzes the international crises and monetary troubles that further curtailed the reach of the American Century in the early 1960s and brought it to a halt by the end of that decade. By 1968, it seemed that all the United States had to offer to allies and non-hostile nations was convenient military might, nuclear deterrence, and the uncertainty of détente. Once the dust had fallen on Lyndon B. Johnson’s presidency and Richard M. Nixon had taken office, what remained was, The Rise and Decline of the American Century shows, an adulterated, strategically-based version of Luce’s American Century.

The Role Of Religion And Ethnicity In Contemporary Conflict

Author: Basil Ugorji
Publisher: International Center for Ethno-Religious Mediation
ISBN:
Size: 43.59 MB
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Welcome to the first edition of the International Center for Ethno-Religious Mediation’s Journal of Living Together. We were surprised and delighted to receive so many outstanding submissions, and see the resounding response to our very first call for papers as an appreciable indication of the connection people feel to our mission and our community. Through this journal it is our intention to inform, inspire, reveal and explore the intricate and complex nature of human interaction in the context of ethno-religious identity and the roles it plays in war and peace. By sharing theories, observations and valuable experiences we mean to open a broader, more inclusive dialogue between policymakers, academics, researchers, religious leaders, representatives of ethnic groups and indigenous peoples, and field practitioners around the world. Lasting peace stems from changes in thinking about what it is to be a part of the human family, who we are to one another, and what mutual obligations and responsibilities exist between us. It requires us to accept that we are each a resource, an advantage, an asset to the whole. It hinges on our ultimate acceptance of cultural identity, history, faith and tradition as simply vivid aspects of our overarching human kinship. The belief-based perspectives that influence these patterns of being however are among the most deeply ingrained of all individual and social mechanisms. Any efforts to reshape them are highly ambitious and fraught with seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Yet, cultures and their societies are not static, and their adaptive nature requires that even within the most intractable of conflicts, there will be change; how they change will depend upon shifts in the environment, changes in human experience, and the availability of new information with which to make different choices. The theme of this issue: The Role of Religion and Ethnicity in Contemporary Conflict: Related Emerging Tactics, Strategies and Methodologies of Mediation and Resolution looks at ways to influence these changes, improve interethnic and interfaith experiences, and offers information which can enlighten social discourse and reveal the possibility of previously unforeseen choices. We begin with “Words from the Board,” where Dr. David Silvera explains that mediation is at the very heart of democratic thought & lays out the value of mediation as a vital aspect of adult education in his commentary, Education for Democratic Citizenship and Intercultural Conflicts by Mediation. Dr. René Lemarchand’s cautionary discussion regarding the risks involved in mankind’s willingness and even propensity to ignore some of history’s worst atrocities follows in his article, Remembering Forgotten Genocides. Jamie L. Hurst’s paper, Holy Conflict: the Intersection of Religion and Mediation, explores the junction where religion and mediation meet, focusing on the unique challenges and opportunities this crossroads brings to bear. In her piece, Identity Reconsidered, Zarrín Caldwell describes the cost of “narrowly-construed identity formations” and puts forward the idea that the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith on nested identities might offer some new ways of approaching peacebuilding. Similarly, in their work Storytelling as a Means for Peace Education: Intercultural Dialogue in Southern Thailand, Erna Anjarwati & Allison Trimble describe their research conducting peace storytelling as a means to encourage social reconciliation between Thai-Buddhists and Malay-Muslims youth. And finally, Lanhe S. Shan presents an in-depth assessment of the long-term outcomes following the implementation of unfortunate conflict mitigation strategies and offers suggestions for improved results in Analysis of Tito’s Policies on Ethnic Conflict: the Case of Kosovo. This journal is not meant to be a bastion of declarative wisdom, rather it is intended to be a conduit, a medium for vibrant exchange, and discussion of its contents is vital to its purpose. We want your input, your ideas, your thoughts and your insights. You will find plenty to discuss every quarter in the articles, book reviews, Living Together Movement updates, social media buzz, and Photos from the Field here, and in the issues ahead.

The China Pakistan Axis

Author: Andrew Small
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190257571
Size: 59.54 MB
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The Beijing-Islamabad axis plays a central role in Asia's geopolitics, from India's rise to the prospects for a post-American Afghanistan, from the threat of nuclear terrorism to the continent's new map of mines, ports and pipelines. China is Pakistan's great economic hope and its most trusted military partner; Pakistan is the battleground for China's encounters with Islamic militancy and the heart of its efforts to counter-balance the emerging US-India partnership. For decades, each country has been the other's only 'all-weather' friend. Yet the relationship is still little understood. The wildest claims about it are widely believed, while many of its most dramatic developments are hid- den from the public eye. This book sets out the recent history of Sino-Pakistani ties and their ramifications for the West, for India, for Afghanistan, and for Asia as a whole. It tells the stories behind some of its most sensitive aspects, including Beijing's support for Pakistan's nuclear program, China's dealings with the Taliban, and the Chinese military's planning for crises in Pakistan. It describes a relationship increasingly shaped by Pakistan's internal strife, and the dilemmas China faces between the need for regional stability and the imperative for strategic competition with India and the USA.