The Condemnation of Blackness

The Condemnation of Blackness

"The Idea of Black Criminality was crucial to the making of modern urban America. Khalil Gibran Muhammad chronicles how, when, and why modern notions of black people as an exceptionally dangerous race of criminals first emerged. Well known are the lynch mobs and racist criminal justice practices in the South that stoked white fears of black crime and shaped the contours of the New South. In this illuminating book, Muhammad shifts our attention to the urban North as a crucial but overlooked site for the production and dissemination of those ideas and practices. Following the 1890 census - the first to measure the generation of African Americans born after slavery - crime statistics, new migration and immigration trends, and symbolic references to America as the promised land were woven into a cautionary tale about the exceptional threat black people posed to modern urban society. Excessive arrest rates and overrepresentation in northern prisons were seen by many whites - liberals and conservatives, northerners and southerners - as indisputable proof of blacks' inferiority. What else but pathology could explain black failure in the land of opportunity? Social scientists and reformers used crime statistics to mask and excuse anti-black racism, violence, and discrimination across the nation, especially in the urban North. The Condemnation of Blackness is the most thorough historical account of the enduring link between blackness and criminality in the making of modern urban America. It is a startling examination of why the echoes of America's Jim Crow past continue to resonate in 'color-blind' crime rhetoric today."--Book jacket.

The Condemnation of Blackness

Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America, With a New Preface

The Condemnation of Blackness

Chronicling the emergence of deeply embedded notions of black people as a dangerous race of criminals by explicit contrast to working-class whites and European immigrants, this fascinating book reveals the influence such ideas have had on urban development and social policies.

Black Stats

African Americans by the Numbers in the Twenty-first Century

Black Stats

Black Stats—a comprehensive guide filled with contemporary facts and figures on African Americans—is an essential reference for anyone attempting to fathom the complex state of our nation. With fascinating and often surprising information on everything from incarceration rates, lending practices, and the arts to marriage, voting habits, and green jobs, the contextualized material in this book will better attune readers to telling trends while challenging commonly held, yet often misguided, perceptions. A compilation that at once highlights measures of incredible progress and enumerates the disparate impacts of social policies and practices, this book is a critical tool for advocates, educators, and policy makers. Black Stats offers indispensable information that is sure to enlighten discussions and provoke debates about the quality of Black life in the United States today—and help chart the path to a better future. There are less than a quarter-million Black public school teachers in the U.S.—representing just 7 percent of all teachers in public schools. Approximately half of the Black population in the United States lives in neighborhoods that have no White residents. In the five years before the Great Recession, the number of Black-owned businesses in the United States increased by 61 percent. A 2010 study found that 41 percent of Black youth feel that rap music videos should be more political. There are no Black owners or presidents of an NFL franchise team. 78 percent of Black Americans live within 30 miles of a coal-fired power plant, compared with 56 percent of White Americans.

The Evolution of American Urban History, (S2PCL)

The Evolution of American Urban History, (S2PCL)

This interesting and informative book shows how different groups of urban residents with different social, economic, and political power cope with the urban environment, struggle to make a living, participate in communal institutions, and influence the direction of cities and urban life. An absorbing book, The Evolution of American Urban Society surveys the dynamics of American urbanization from the sixteenth century to the present, skillfully blending historical perspectives on society, economics, politics, and policy, and focusing on the ways in which diverse peoples have inhabited and interacted in cities. Key topics: Broad coverage includes: the Colonial Age, commercialization and urban expansion, life in the walking city, industrialization, newcomers, city politics, the social and physical environment, the 1920s and 1930s, the growth of suburbanization, and the future of modern cities. Market: An interesting and necessary read for anyone involved in urban sociology, including urban planners, city managers, and those in the urban political arena.

Violence at the Urban Margins

Violence at the Urban Margins

In the Americas, debates around issues of citizen's public safety--from debates that erupt after highly publicized events, such as the shootings of Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin, to those that recurrently dominate the airwaves in Latin America--are dominated by members of the middle and upper-middle classes. However, a cursory count of the victims of urban violence in the Americas reveals that the people suffering the most from violence live, and die, at the lowest of the socio-symbolic order, at the margins of urban societies. The inhabitants of the urban margins are hardly ever heard in discussions about public safety. They live in danger but the discourse about violence and risk belongs to, is manufactured and manipulated by, others--others who are prone to view violence at the urban margins as evidence of a cultural, or racial, defect, rather than question violence's relationship to economic and political marginalization. As a result, the experience of interpersonal violence among the urban poor becomes something unspeakable, and the everyday fear and trauma lived in relegated territories is constantly muted and denied. This edited volume seeks to counteract this pernicious tendency by putting under the ethnographic microscope--and making public--the way in which violence is lived and acted upon in the urban peripheries. It features cutting-edge ethnographic research on the role of violence in the lives of the urban poor in South, Central, and North America, and sheds light on the suffering that violence produces and perpetuates, as well as the individual and collective responses that violence generates, among those living at the urban margins of the Americas.

Health in the City

Race, Poverty, and the Negotiation of Women’s Health in New York City, 1915–1930

Health in the City

Shortly after the dawn of the twentieth century, the New York City Department of Health decided to address what it perceived as the racial nature of health. It delivered heavily racialized care in different neighborhoods throughout the city: syphillis treatment among African Americans, tuberculosis for Italian Americans, and so on. It was a challenging and ambitious program, dangerous for the providers, and troublingly reductive for the patients. Nevertheless, poor and working-class African American, British West Indian, and Southern Italian women all received some of the nation’s best health care during this period. Health in the City challenges traditional ideas of early twentieth-century urban black health care by showing a program that was simultaneously racialized and cutting-edge. It reveals that even the most well-meaning public health programs may inadvertently reinforce perceptions of inferiority that they were created to fix.

Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education

Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education

This handbook illustrates how education scholars employ Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a framework to bring attention to issues of race and racism in education. It is the first authoritative reference work to provide a truly comprehensive description and analysis of the topic, from the defining conceptual principles of CRT in the Law that gave shape to its radical underpinnings to the political and social implications of the field today. It is divided into three sections, covering innovations in educational research, policy and practice in both schools and in higher education, and the increasing interdisciplinary nature of critical race research. With 28 newly commissioned pieces written by the most renowned scholars in the field, this handbook provides the definitive statement on the state of critical race theory in education and on its possibilities for the future.

Something's in the Air

Race, Crime, and the Legalization of Marijuana

Something's in the Air

America’s drug laws have always exerted an unequal and unfair toll on Blacks and Latinos, who are arrested more often than Whites for the possession of illegal drugs and given harsher sentences. In this volume, contributors ask how would marijuana legalization affect communities of color? Is legalization of marijuana necessary to safeguard minority families from a lifetime of hardship and inequality? Who in minority communities favors legalization and why, and do these minority opinions differ from the opinions held by White Americans? This volume also includes analyses of the policy debate by a range of scholars addressing economic, health, and empowerment issues. Comparative lessons from other countries are also analyzed.

A History of Police and Masculinities, 1700-2010

A History of Police and Masculinities, 1700-2010

This unique collection brings together leading international scholars to explore how ideologies about masculinities have shaped police culture, policy and institutional organization from the eighteenth century to the present day. It addresses an under-researched area of historical inquiry, providing the first in-depth study of how gender ideologies have shaped law enforcement and civic governance under 'old' and 'new' police models, tracing links, continuities, and changes between them. The book opens up scholarly understanding of the ways in which policing reflected, sustained, embodied and enforced ideas of masculinities in historic and modern contexts, as well as how conceptions of masculinities were, and continue to be, interpreted through representations of the police in various forms of print and popular culture. The research covers the UK, Europe, Australia and America and explores police typologies in different international and institutional contexts, using varied approaches, sources and interpretive frameworks drawn from historical and criminological traditions. This book will be essential reading for academics, students and those in interested in gender, culture, police and criminal justice history as well as police practitioners.

Black Male(d)

Peril and Promise in the Education of African American Males

Black Male(d)

In his new book, the author of the bestseller Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools examines the chronic under-performance of African American males in U.S. schools. Citing a plethora of disturbing academic outcomes for Black males, this book focuses on the historical, structural, educational, psychological, emotional, and cultural factors that influence the teaching and learning process for this student population. Howard discusses the potential and promise of Black males by highlighting their voices to generate new insights, create new knowledge, and identify useful practices that can significantly improve the schooling experiences and life chances of Black males. Howard calls for a paradigm shift in how we think about, teach, and study Black males. Book Features: Examines current structures, ideologies, and practices that both help and hinder the educational and social prospects of Black males. Translates frequently cited theoretical principles into research-based classroom practice. Documents teacher-student interactions, student viewpoints, and discusses the troubling role that sports plays in the lives of many Black males. Highlights voices and perspectives from Black male students about ways to improve their schooling experiences and outcomes. Identifies community-based programs that are helping Black males succeed. “Howard is more than a reformer. He seeks to dismantle a system that stifles dreams, devours hopes, and destroys opportunities. . . . He offers us a road map for how to do this and an invitation to join him in this venture. Let us hope that more than a few of those who read this book will enthusiastically accept his offer and join him in this important work.” —From the Foreword by Pedro A. Noguera, New York University “Black Male(d) is a timely, masterfully crafted contribution to an important conversation about one of our nation’s most misunderstood populations. Anyone who is troubled by the status of Black boys in schools and society will find much that is useful in this book. The author’s brilliance is apparent and praiseworthy.” —Shaun R. Harper, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, University of Pennsylvania “This book pushes educators to not only know more but to do more on behalf of Black males. This is the book that shows us how to reform practices, policies, and places in order to improve the human condition of Black males. Howard reminds us all that we absolutely must do better—our children’s lives depend on it!” —H. Richard Milner IV, Helen Faison Endowed Chair of Urban Education, University of Pittsburgh Tyrone C. Howard is professor of education at the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles.