The Maximum Entropy Method

The Maximum Entropy Method

Forty years ago, in 1957, the Principle of Maximum Entropy was first intro duced by Jaynes into the field of statistical mechanics. Since that seminal publication, this principle has been adopted in many areas of science and technology beyond its initial application. It is now found in spectral analysis, image restoration and a number of branches ofmathematics and physics, and has become better known as the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM). Today MEM is a powerful means to deal with ill-posed problems, and much research work is devoted to it. My own research in the area ofMEM started in 1980, when I was a grad uate student in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Sydney, Australia. This research work was the basis of my Ph.D. the sis, The Maximum Entropy Method and Its Application in Radio Astronomy, completed in 1985. As well as continuing my research in MEM after graduation, I taught a course of the same name at the Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijingfrom 1987to 1990. Delivering the course was theimpetus for developing a structured approach to the understanding of MEM and writing hundreds of pages of lecture notes.

Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Second International Workshop, EMMCVPR'99, York, UK, July 26-29, 1999, Proceedings

Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, EMMCVPR'99, held in York, UK in July 1999. The book presents 11 revised full papers together with 11 papers presented at the meeting as posters. Those papers were selected from a total of 33 submissions. The book is divided in sections on shape, minimum description length, Markov random fields, contours, search and consistent labeling, tracking and video, and biomedical applications.

Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation, and Resonance

Applications to Condensed Matter

Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation, and Resonance

Intended for graduate students and researchers who plan to use the muon spin rotation and relaxation techniques. A comprehensive discussion of the information extracted from measurements on magnetic and superconductor materials. The muonium centres as well as the muon and muonium diffusion in materials are discussed.

Entropy and Energy Dissipation in Water Resources

Entropy and Energy Dissipation in Water Resources

Since the landmark contributions of C. E. Shannon in 1948, and those of E. T. Jaynes about a decade later, applications of the concept of entropy and the principle of maximum entropy have proliterated in science and engineering. Recent years have witnessed a broad range of new and exciting developments in hydrology and water resources using the entropy concept. These have encompassed innovative methods for hydrologic network design, transfer of information, flow forecasting, reliability assessment for water distribution systems, parameter estimation, derivation of probability distributions, drainage-network analysis, sediment yield modeling and pollutant loading, bridge-scour analysis, construction of velocity profiles, comparative evaluation of hydrologic models, and so on. Some of these methods hold great promise for advancement of engineering practice, permitting rational alternatives to conventional approaches. On the other hand, the concepts of energy and energy dissipation are being increasingly applied to a wide spectrum of problems in environmental and water resources. Both entropy and energy dissipation have their origin in thermodynamics, and are related concepts. Yet, many of the developments using entropy seem to be based entirely on statistical interpretation and have seemingly little physical content. For example, most of the entropy-related developments and applications in water resources have been based on the information-theoretic interpretation of entropy. We believe if the power of the entropy concept is to be fully realized, then its physical basis has to be established.

From Statistical Physics to Statistical Inference and Back

From Statistical Physics to Statistical Inference and Back

Physicists, when modelling physical systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, and statisticians, when performing data analysis, have developed their own concepts and methods for making the `best' inference. But are these methods equivalent, or not? What is the state of the art in making inferences? The physicists want answers. More: neural computation demands a clearer understanding of how neural systems make inferences; the theory of chaotic nonlinear systems as applied to time series analysis could profit from the experience already booked by the statisticians; and finally, there is a long-standing conjecture that some of the puzzles of quantum mechanics are due to our incomplete understanding of how we make inferences. Matter enough to stimulate the writing of such a book as the present one. But other considerations also arise, such as the maximum entropy method and Bayesian inference, information theory and the minimum description length. Finally, it is pointed out that an understanding of human inference may require input from psychologists. This lively debate, which is of acute current interest, is well summarized in the present work.

Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods Garching, Germany 1998

Proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods of Statistical Analysis

Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods Garching, Germany 1998

In 1978 Edwin T. Jaynes and Myron Tribus initiated a series of workshops to exchange ideas and recent developments in technical aspects and applications of Bayesian probability theory. The first workshop was held at the University of Wyoming in 1981 organized by C.R. Smith and W.T. Grandy. Due to its success, the workshop was held annually during the last 18 years. Over the years, the emphasis of the workshop shifted gradually from fundamental concepts of Bayesian probability theory to increasingly realistic and challenging applications. The 18th international workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods was held in Garching / Munich (Germany) (27-31. July 1998). Opening lectures by G. Larry Bretthorst and by Myron Tribus were dedicated to one of th the pioneers of Bayesian probability theory who died on the 30 of April 1998: Edwin Thompson Jaynes. Jaynes revealed and advocated the correct meaning of 'probability' as the state of knowledge rather than a physical property. This inter pretation allowed him to unravel longstanding mysteries and paradoxes. Bayesian probability theory, "the logic of science" - as E.T. Jaynes called it - provides the framework to make the best possible scientific inference given all available exper imental and theoretical information. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of Tribus and Bretthorst in commemorating the outstanding contributions of E.T. Jaynes to the development of probability theory.

Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering

Foundations

Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering

This volume has its origin in the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Workshops on and Bayesian Methods in Applied Statistics", held at "Maximum-Entropy the University of Wyoming, August 5-8, 1985, and at Seattle University, August 5-8, 1986, and August 4-7, 1987. It was anticipated that the proceedings of these workshops would be combined, so most of the papers were not collected until after the seventh workshop. Because all of the papers in this volume are on foundations, it is believed that the con tents of this volume will be of lasting interest to the Bayesian community. The workshop was organized to bring together researchers from different fields to critically examine maximum-entropy and Bayesian methods in science and engineering as well as other disciplines. Some of the papers were chosen specifically to kindle interest in new areas that may offer new tools or insight to the reader or to stimulate work on pressing problems that appear to be ideally suited to the maximum-entropy or Bayesian method. A few papers presented at the workshops are not included in these proceedings, but a number of additional papers not presented at the workshop are included. In particular, we are delighted to make available Professor E. T. Jaynes' unpublished Stanford University Microwave Laboratory Report No. 421 "How Does the Brain Do Plausible Reasoning?" (dated August 1957). This is a beautiful, detailed tutorial on the Cox-Polya-Jaynes approach to Bayesian probability theory and the maximum-entropy principle.